CDC Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity - COCA

CDC Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity - COCA COCA is with the CDC Emergency Risk Communication Branch. Disclaimer: Posted comments do not necessarily represent the views of CDC. CDC's Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) team helps clinicians, state and local public health officials, and local communities improve response capacity and preparedness by providing current and reliable information available on emerging health threats.

๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—œ๐—–๐—œ๐—”๐—Ÿ ๐—–๐——๐—– ๐—›๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—ง๐—› ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—ง ๐—ก๐—˜๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ž (๐—›๐—”๐—ก) ๐—”๐——๐—ฉ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ฌ ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฑ๐Ÿญ: ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ˆ๐˜ท๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜Š๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜‹๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ข-8 ...
09/14/2021
HAN Archive - 00451 | Health Alert Network (HAN)

๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—œ๐—–๐—œ๐—”๐—Ÿ ๐—–๐——๐—– ๐—›๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—ง๐—› ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—ง ๐—ก๐—˜๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ž (๐—›๐—”๐—ก) ๐—”๐——๐—ฉ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ฌ ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฑ๐Ÿญ:
๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ˆ๐˜ท๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜Š๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜‹๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ข-8 ๐˜›๐˜๐˜Š ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜™๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜Š๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ˆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜Œ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ด

The purpose of this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory is to alert public health departments, healthcare professionals, first responders, poison control centers, laboratories, and the public to the increased availability of cannabis products containing delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the potential for adverse events due to insufficient labeling of products containing THC and cannabidiol (CBD).

Delta-8 THC intoxication can cause adverse effects similar to those observed during delta-9 THC intoxication, and may includeโ€”

โ€ข Lethargy
โ€ข Uncoordinated movements and decreased psychomotor activity
โ€ข Slurred speech
โ€ข Increased heart rate progressing to slowed heart rate
โ€ข Low blood pressure
โ€ข Difficulty breathing
โ€ข Sedation
โ€ข Coma

๐—™๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป, ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜
https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2021/han00451.asp

Health Alert Network (HAN). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

๐—›๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—น๐˜๐—ต๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—น๐˜€, ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐—ท๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐˜‚๐˜€ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜ ๐—–๐—ข๐—–๐—” ๐—–๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น. ๐—ง๐—ผ๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐—ฐ: 2021-2022 ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ง๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ป๐˜ข ๐˜๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜™๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ...
09/07/2021
Webinar September 9, 2021 - 2021-2022 Influenza Vaccination Recommendations and Guidance on Coadministration with COVID-19 Vaccines

๐—›๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—น๐˜๐—ต๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—น๐˜€, ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐—ท๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐˜‚๐˜€ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜ ๐—–๐—ข๐—–๐—” ๐—–๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น.

๐—ง๐—ผ๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐—ฐ: 2021-2022 ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ง๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ป๐˜ข ๐˜๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜™๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜Ž๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜Š๐˜–๐˜๐˜๐˜‹-19 ๐˜๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด

๐—ข๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜„: ๐˜‹๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜Š๐˜–๐˜Š๐˜ˆ ๐˜Š๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ, ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ด ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ˆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜๐˜ฎ๐˜ฎ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ป๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ด (๐˜ˆ๐˜Š๐˜๐˜—) ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ 2021-2022 ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ง๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ป๐˜ข ๐˜ท๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜จ๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ง๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ป๐˜ข ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜Š๐˜–๐˜๐˜๐˜‹-19 ๐˜ท๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด.

๐ƒ๐š๐ญ๐ž/๐“๐ข๐ฆ๐ž: ๐‘‡โ„Ž๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘ ๐‘‘๐‘Ž๐‘ฆ, ๐‘†๐‘’๐‘๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘š๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ÿ 7, 2021; 2:00 - 3:00๐‘๐‘š ๐ธ๐‘‡

๐…๐จ๐ซ ๐ฆ๐จ๐ซ๐ž ๐ข๐ง๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ๐ฆ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง, ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ž ๐ฏ๐ข๐ฌ๐ข๐ญ: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/calls/2021/callinfo_090921.asp

CDC Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA). Providing clinicians the most current and reliable information on emerging public health threats, such as pandemics, natural disasters, and bioterrorism.

09/01/2021
CDC Library: COVID-19 Science Updates

๐‚๐ƒ๐‚โ€™๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ž๐ž๐ค๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐‘ช๐‘ถ๐‘ฝ๐‘ฐ๐‘ซ-๐Ÿญ๐Ÿต ๐‘บ๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’๐’„๐’† ๐‘ผ๐’‘๐’…๐’‚๐’•๐’†

Scientific information can drive meaningful improvements in peopleโ€™s health and plays a crucial role to protect the public from COVID-19. Every day, new research and scientific studies are released to help understand COVID-19. Given the high volume of information, it can be difficult to keep up with the latest research.

To inform the public health response to ๐—–๐—ข๐—ฉ๐—œ๐——-๐Ÿญ๐Ÿต, CDC has created the ๐‘ช๐‘ถ๐‘ฝ๐‘ฐ๐‘ซ-๐Ÿญ๐Ÿต ๐‘บ๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’๐’„๐’† ๐‘ผ๐’‘๐’…๐’‚๐’•๐’†. This weekly series provides timely summaries of new ๐—–๐—ข๐—ฉ๐—œ๐——-๐Ÿญ๐Ÿต publications and preprints on public health priority topics, including vaccines, variants, natural history, reinfection, and health impact; prevention strategies and non-pharmaceutical interventions; testing; transmission risk and dynamics; and health equity.

Summaries clearly and accurately capture new and emerging scientific data needed to meet the challenges of this fast-moving public health crisis.

Sign up for your ๐…๐‘๐„๐„ weekly subscription to ๐‚๐ƒ๐‚โ€™๐ฌ
๐‘ช๐‘ถ๐‘ฝ๐‘ฐ๐‘ซ-๐Ÿญ๐Ÿต ๐‘บ๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’๐’„๐’† ๐‘ผ๐’‘๐’…๐’‚๐’•๐’† delivered by email every Friday by visiting https://www.cdc.gov/library/covid19/scienceupdates.html?Sort=Date%3A%3Adesc

Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library is the CDC's hub for information, education, innovation and collaboration.

CDC Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory 450: Hurricane Idaโ€”Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning T...
08/28/2021
HAN Archive - 00450 | Health Alert Network (HAN)

CDC Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory 450: Hurricane Idaโ€”Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is reminding healthcare professionals seeing patients from areas that will be affected by severe storms, hurricanes, high winds, and flooding to maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Other people who may be exposed to the same CO source may need to be identified and evaluated.

The signs and symptoms of CO exposure are variable and nonspecific. A tension-type headache is the most common symptom of mild CO poisoning. Other common symptoms of CO poisoning are dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, upset stomach, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion.

Clinical manifestations of severe CO poisoning include cardiovascular and neurological effects: tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, dysrhythmias, myocardial ischemia or infarction, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, irritability, impaired memory, cognitive and sensory disturbances, ataxia, altered or loss of consciousness, seizures, coma, and death, although any organ system might be involved.

Although CO poisoning can be fatal, children, pregnant women, the unborn, persons with sickle cell disease, older adults, and persons with chronic illness (e.g., heart or lung disease) are particularly high risk.

For the full report, visit https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2021/han00450.asp

Health Alert Network (HAN). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—œ๐—–๐—œ๐—”๐—Ÿ ๐—–๐——๐—– ๐—›๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—ง๐—› ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—ง ๐—ก๐—˜๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ž (๐—›๐—”๐—ก) ๐—”๐——๐—ฉ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ฌ ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿต:  ๐˜™๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜™๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜š๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ...
08/26/2021
HAN Archive - 00449 | Health Alert Network (HAN)

๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—œ๐—–๐—œ๐—”๐—Ÿ ๐—–๐——๐—– ๐—›๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—ง๐—› ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—ง ๐—ก๐—˜๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ž (๐—›๐—”๐—ก) ๐—”๐——๐—ฉ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ฌ ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿต: ๐˜™๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜™๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜š๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด ๐˜ˆ๐˜ด๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜œ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜Š๐˜–๐˜๐˜๐˜‹-19

Ivermectin is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prescription medication used to treat certain infections caused by internal and external parasites. When used as prescribed for approved indications, it is generally safe and well-tolerated.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, ivermectin dispensing by retail pharmacies has increased, as has the use of veterinary formulations available over the counter but not intended for human use. FDA has cautioned about the potential risks of use for prevention or treatment of COVID-19.

Ivermectin is not authorized or approved by FDA for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. The National Institutes of Healthโ€™s (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel has also determined that there are currently insufficient data to recommend ivermectin for treatment of COVID-19. ClinicalTrials.gov has listings of ongoing clinical trials that might provide more information about these hypothesized uses in the future.

Adverse effects associated with ivermectin misuse and overdose are increasing, as shown by a rise in calls to poison control centers reporting overdoses and more people experiencing adverse effects.

Clinical effects of ivermectin overdose include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Overdoses are associated with hypotension and neurologic effects such as decreased consciousness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, coma, and death. Ivermectin may potentiate the effects of other drugs that cause central nervous system depression such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates.

Read more by visiting https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2021/han00449.asp

Health Alert Network (HAN). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

COCA is pleased to share this milestone in the fight against #COVID19.
08/23/2021
FDA Approves First COVID-19 Vaccine

COCA is pleased to share this milestone in the fight against #COVID19.

FDA approved the first COVID-19 vaccine, now marketed as Comirnaty, for the prevention of COVID-19 disease in individuals 16 years of age and older.

Healthcare providers, did you know that pregnant and recently pregnant people are at increased risk for severe illness f...
08/19/2021
Vaccination Considerations for People Pregnant or Breastfeeding

Healthcare providers, did you know that pregnant and recently pregnant people are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19? CDC recommends all people who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or people thinking about becoming pregnant get vaccinated against COVID-19.

Evidence about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy has been growing. These data suggest that the benefits of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine outweigh any known or potential risks of vaccination during pregnancy.

There is currently no evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine causes fertility problems in women or men.

Read more https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/recommendations/pregnancy.html

Find information about COVID-19 vaccination considerations for people who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Healthcare professionals, we invite you to attend the next CDC COCA Call in the COVID-19 series.Topic: Additional mRNA C...
08/14/2021
Webinar August 17, 2021 - Additional mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines for Moderately to Severely Immunocompromised People

Healthcare professionals, we invite you to attend the next CDC COCA Call in the COVID-19 series.

Topic: Additional mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines for Moderately to Severely Immunocompromised People

When: Tuesday, August 17, 2021, 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET

For more details, please visit: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/calls/2021/callinfo_081721.asp

CDC Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA). Providing clinicians the most current and reliable information on emerging public health threats, such as pandemics, natural disasters, and bioterrorism.

08/11/2021
Multistate Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia Infections Associated with Contaminated Ultrasound Gel | HAI | CDC

Healthcare professionals, we would like to inform you about a multistate outbreak of ๐‘ฉ๐’–๐’“๐’Œ๐’‰๐’๐’๐’…๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’‚ ๐’„๐’†๐’‘๐’‚๐’„๐’Š๐’‚ complex (Bcc) infections in healthcare facilities. Patients have developed Bcc infections, including bloodstream infections, after having undergone ultrasound-guided procedures in which ๐Œ๐ž๐๐ข๐‚๐ก๐จ๐ข๐œ๐žยฎ ๐Œ๐Ÿ“๐ŸŽ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ๐Ÿ ultrasound gel was likely used.

As of August 4, 2021, the manufacturer of MediChoiceยฎM500812 ultrasound gel (Eco-Med Pharmaceutical, Etobicoke, ON, Canada) has issued a recall of Eco-Gel 200ยฎ ultrasound gel (also labeled as MediChoiceยฎ M500812, among others) with lots: B029, B030, B031, B032, B040, B041, B048, B055. Eco-Med is instructing all healthcare facilities toโ€”

โ€ข Immediately stop using and quarantine all lots of the following ultrasound gels distributed under the brand names in this notice https://eco-med.com/wp-content/uploads//2021/08/Eco-Med-Recall-Press-Release-08-04-21-4.pdf, and
โ€ข Identify the affected products by lot number in this noticehttps://eco-med.com/wp-content/uploads//2021/08/Eco-Med-Recall-Press-Release-08-04-21-4.pdf and immediately destroy or return products from affected lots to Eco-Med.

Please refer to the Eco-Med Recall Notice for additional information. https://eco-med.com/recall/

As this investigation continues, CDC encourages healthcare facilities to report any patient infections related to the use of potentially contaminated medical products to FDAโ€™s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program. https://www.fda.gov/safety/medwatch-fda-safety-information-and-adverse-event-reporting-program

More information about this outbreak investigation and additional information for clinicians can be found on the CDC website. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/outbreaks/b-cepacia-ultrasound-gel/index.html

CDC is assisting the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and several state and local health departments with an ongoing investigation of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections in healthcare facilities. Patients have developed Bcc infections, including bloodstream infections, after likely havin...

๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—œ๐—–๐—œ๐—”๐—Ÿ ๐—–๐——๐—– ๐—›๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—ง๐—› ๐—ก๐—˜๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ž (๐—›๐—”๐—ก) ๐—จ๐—ฃ๐——๐—”๐—ง๐—˜ ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿด: New Case Identified: Multistate Investigation of Non-travel Associated ๐‘ฉ๐’–๐’“...
08/09/2021
HAN Archive - 00448 | Health Alert Network (HAN)

๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—œ๐—–๐—œ๐—”๐—Ÿ ๐—–๐——๐—– ๐—›๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—ง๐—› ๐—ก๐—˜๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—ž (๐—›๐—”๐—ก) ๐—จ๐—ฃ๐——๐—”๐—ง๐—˜ ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿด: New Case Identified: Multistate Investigation of Non-travel Associated ๐‘ฉ๐’–๐’“๐’Œ๐’‰๐’๐’๐’…๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’‚ ๐’‘๐’”๐’†๐’–๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’๐’†๐’Š Infections (Melioidosis) in Four Patients: Georgia, Kansas, Minnesota, and Texasโ€”2021

The Georgia Department of Public Health, with assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is investigating a fatal case of ๐‘ฉ๐’–๐’“๐’Œ๐’‰๐’๐’๐’…๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’‚ ๐’‘๐’”๐’†๐’–๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’๐’†๐’Š infection (i.e., melioidosis) identified in late July 2021. Based on genomic analysis, this case in Georgia closely matches the three cases previously identified in Kansas, Minnesota, and Texas in 2021, indicating they all most likely share a common source of exposure.

The Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the Minnesota Department of Health, and the Texas Department of State Health Services continue to investigate the three previous cases with assistance from CDC. The four cases include both children and adults. Two cases are female, and two cases are male. The first case, which was fatal, was identified in March 2021 in Kansas. The second and third cases, both identified in May 2021 in Minnesota and Texas, were hospitalized for extended periods of time before being discharged to transitional care facilities. The most recent case died in the hospital and was identified post-mortem in late July 2021 in Georgia. None of the cases had a history of traveling outside of the continental United States.

Symptoms of melioidosis are varied and nonspecific and may include pneumonia, abscess formation, and blood infections. Due to its nonspecific symptoms, melioidosis can initially be mistaken for other diseases such as tuberculosis, which can delay proper treatment. ๐‘ฉ. ๐’‘๐’”๐’†๐’–๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’๐’†๐’Š may also be misidentified by some automated identification methods in laboratory settings.

Read the rest of this HAN Update by visiting https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2021/han00448.asp

Health Alert Network (HAN). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Healthcare professionals, we invite you to attend the next CDC COCA Call in the COVID-19 series. Topic: Therapeutic Opti...
08/07/2021
Webinar August 12, 2021 - Therapeutic Options to Prevent Severe COVID-19 in Immunocompromised People

Healthcare professionals, we invite you to attend the next CDC COCA Call in the COVID-19 series.

Topic: Therapeutic Options to Prevent Severe COVID-19 in Immunocompromised People

When: Thursday, August 12, 2021, 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET

For more details, please visit: https://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/calls/2021/callinfo_081221.asp

CDC Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA). Providing clinicians the most current and reliable information on emerging public health threats, such as pandemics, natural disasters, and bioterrorism.

OFFICIAL CDC HEALTH ALERT NETWORK (HAN) ADVISORY 447: Vaccination to Prevent COVID-19 Outbreaks with Current and Emergen...
07/27/2021
HAN Archive - 00447 | Health Alert Network (HAN)

OFFICIAL CDC HEALTH ALERT NETWORK (HAN) ADVISORY 447: Vaccination to Prevent COVID-19 Outbreaks with Current and Emergent Variants โ€” United States, 2021

Summary
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network Health Advisory to notify public health practitioners and clinicians about the urgent need to increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage (i.e., the percentage of the population fully vaccinated) across the United States to prevent surges in new infections that could increase COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality, overwhelm healthcare capacity, and widen existing COVID-19-related health disparities. Increasing vaccination coverage is especially urgent in areas where current coverage is low. Unvaccinated persons account for the majority of new COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, especially the highly infectious Delta variant (B.1.617.2), are accelerating spread of infection. Unvaccinated and partially vaccinated people need to practice all recommended prevention measures until fully vaccinated. In areas with substantial and high transmission, CDC recommends that fully vaccinated individuals wear a mask in public indoor settings to help prevent the spread of Delta and protect others.

Read the rest of this Health Advisory by visiting https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2021/han00447.asp

Health Alert Network (HAN). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

OFFICIAL CDC HEALTH ADVISORY NETWORK (HAN) 446: Potential Exposure to Person with Confirmed Human Monkeypox Infection - ...
07/17/2021
HAN Archive - 00446 | Health Alert Network (HAN)

OFFICIAL CDC HEALTH ADVISORY NETWORK (HAN) 446: Potential Exposure to Person with Confirmed Human Monkeypox Infection - United States, 2021

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the Texas Department of State Health Services and Dallas County Health and Human Services, is investigating a single case of monkeypox virus infection in a U.S. citizen who resides in the United States and recently returned from travel to Nigeria. The patient traveled to Dallas from Lagos, Nigeria, via Atlanta on two separate flights during July 8-9, 2021. The patient presented to an emergency department in Dallas, Texas on July 13 for complaints of a rash that began on July 7, one day prior to travel. Testing at Dallas County and CDC confirmed the presence of monkeypox virus. CDC is working with the airlines to share information with state and local health officials to contact airline passengers and others who may have been in contact with the patient during two flights: Lagos, Nigeria, to Atlanta on July 8, with arrival on July 9; and Atlanta to Dallas on July 9. CDC is issuing this health advisory to ask clinicians to consider a diagnosis of monkeypox in people who present with a febrile prodrome followed by rash and who may have had direct or indirect contact with the patient.

Read the complete HAN by visiting https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2021/han00446.asp

Health Alert Network (HAN). Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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Loving U.S. Parents: You trusted Trump and right wing media months ago that Coronavirus was no big deal and we shouldnโ€™t be so concerned. Now that the U.S. continues to have more deaths than ANY other nation how did that advice work out? You trusted Trump and right wing media that alternative drugs like the anti-malaria drug & warm weather would help resolve the problem. How did that go? You trusted Trump during his visit to India in February when he assured 330,000,000 Americans that a vaccine would be available soon. โ€œNow they have it, they have studied it, they know very much, in fact, weโ€™re very close to a vaccine,โ€ What exactly is your definition of very close? You trusted Trump and right wing media that masks and social distancing were not helpful and we should reopen non-essential businesses as early as possible, first by Easter, then Memorial Day, then the 4th of July. You seemed to believe him when in October of 2020 during most of his maskless campaign rallies when he proclaimed we had โ€œturned the cornerโ€ on the virus but within a week the rates of the virus and hospitalizations skyrocketed in most states! He assured us that you could not catch it again. Turned out this was not very โ€œpro-lifeโ€ type advice and deaths have risen, especially in areas where public health warnings were ignored or ridiculed. 263,000 Americans are dead so far! This is equivalent to wiping out every man, woman, and child in either Boise, Idaho, or Des Moines & Mason City, Iowa combined, or Fargo, Bismarck & Minot, North Dakota combined, or all of Savannah & South Fulton, Georgia combined! So for your kidโ€™s sake why in the world would you be risking their lives, their teachers lives, & their grandparentโ€™s lives after this horrific GOP track record? Offering thoughts & prayers do not exonerate you from responsibility. This is now on YOU & your conscience from here on out, but please donโ€™t ever claim to support โ€œpro-lifeโ€ behavior if you continue to support far out conspiracy theories and GOP politicians who bow down to President Trump, who are drunk on power, over the vast majority of scientists and public health officials. That innocent grandparent, nurse, police officer, or occasional teenager who dies from the reckless, selfish spreading of COVID misinformation is just as worthy as that fetal tissue you claim to want to protect.
I am not a medical person but I am a new case of covid19 and have noticed MAJOR disparity on how at least medical groups like physician offices, "ask a nurse " lines and testing sites are handling things in Ohio. I started experiencing symptoms within 3 days of contact. I live alone with my dog, we go nowhere like parks, I wear mask correctly when leaving to walk dog. So 1 trip to grocery resulted in exposure even with mask and using hand sanitizer during shopping - i got it from handle bars of cart. They used to wipe them but stopped. The problem is i contacted testing sites. Actual clinic sites require doctor referral before you can get test done. Free sites will not do test unless you are actively running temps over 100. Doctors are not ordering test unless you are having severe dehydration or breathing problems. Hospital nurse lines and insurance nurse lines agree that since there is no cure you are safer to stay home and self medicate symptoms unless life threatening symptoms come up. So true counts of cases are. Not accurate there are thousands not being counted because you are discouraged from testing unless you have temperatures at time of test. I was turned away because even though i have several other symptoms and temperature varies throughout day i wasnt running 100+ temp when i got there. You have a president claiming we dont have a problem even though he just had it and caused dozens of contact cases. It seems some guidelines need updated to at least report people who didnt get a test but did present with active symptoms. It also needs more attention sent out that regular flu shot doesnt prevent covid 19. Thanks for your time.
I have heard that every time they test โ€˜1โ€™ patient they count it as another case . So if a patient is in hospital that is tested 5 x they will register as 5 cases ! ? Please can someone check this !
https://photos.app.goo.gl/UF4uQaJ7mB2HUWUq5 Please help me! 2 years I've dealt with this and no one will help me!
It seems that people contacting the Virus through the eyes have a milder overall reaction and more efficacious immune response. Than those contacting the Virus directly through the breathing passages.
Covid survivors, please follow FB: Survivor Corps and Long Haul Covid Fighters. Also, look at the Mt. Sinai Covid after care site and recommend this model be used in EVERY major city to care for Covid survivors. There is so much to be learned about this virus:
#COVIDใƒผ19 #InfectiousDisease #Aerosol #droplets #Saliva #airborne #Dentist #inhale #Virus #guidelines #dentalaerosol #infect #patients #itsintheaerosol #kidsgetsick #KeepWorkersSafe #CDCwhistleblower #dentistry in the air for hours!
Mandate dental offices to address Aerosoles produced during procedures. With aerosol evacuation removers! We are at a 99% risk of Contracting covid-19 if a sick patient sits on our chair.
Hello๏ผ Please find someone to translate. Gu Ge Translation Coronavirus disease! I won't heal, but I,It can teach health and reduce the spread of epidemics by 1/5 to 1/2.You can teach self-treatment actions to allow 1/5 to 1/2 of patients to recover early and be discharged.It can correct medical errors and reduce the mortality rate by 1/5 to 1/2. ่ซ‹ๆ‰พไบบ็ฟป่ญฏใ€‚ ่ฐทๅ“ฅ็ฟป่ญฏ ๆ–ฐๅ† ่‚บ็‚Ž๏ผๆˆ‘ไธๆœƒๆฒป็—…๏ผŒไฝ†ๆˆ‘ใ€ๅฏไปฅๆ•™ๅฐŽๅฅๅบท๏ผŒ้™ไฝŽ1/5๏ฝž1/2็š„็–ซๆƒ…ๆ“ดๆ•ฃใ€‚ๅฏไปฅๆ•™่‡ช็™‚ๅ‹•ไฝœ๏ผŒ่ฎ“1/5๏ฝž1/2็š„ๆ‚ฃ่€…ๆๆ—ฉๅบทๅพฉๅ‡บ้™ขใ€‚ๅฏไปฅๆŒ‡ๆญฃ้†ซ็™‚้Œฏ่ชค๏ผŒๆธ›ๅฐ‘1/5๏ฝž1/2็š„ๆญปไบก็Ž‡ใ€‚ ๅฟซไบŒๅๅนดไบ†้‚„ๆฒ’ๆœ‰ไบบ่ชชๆˆ‘้Œฏ๏ผ่‹ฅๅ†ๆœ‰็…งๆˆ‘ๆ•™็š„่‡ชๅทฑๅš้ปž็ฐกๅ–ฎๅ‹•ไฝœ2๏ฝž10ๅคฉไพฟๅฏ็Ÿฅ้“๏ผŒๆ›ด่ฉณ็ดฐ๏ผŒ่ซ‹ไพ†ๅฐ็ฃใ€‚ๅฐ็ฃ ๆž—ๅŸน้•ท ๅ…ˆ็”Ÿ ้ก˜ไฝ ๆˆ‘ๅฅๅบทๅคง้“็›ธ่ฆ‹ๆญก๏ผŒๅ…ฑๅ‹‰ไน‹๏ผ ็œŸ็š„้‚„ๆ˜ฏๅ‡็š„๏ผŸๅ‰้ซ˜ใ€Œไธ€็”Ÿๅฅ‡ๅฑ๏ผˆ่นŸ๏ผ‰ใ€็œŸ็š„ๅพˆๅฅงๅฆ™๏ผŒๆœ‰่ฟ”็ฅ–็พ่ฑก๏ผ›ไธญใ€่ฅฟ้†ซๅญธ๏ผ›้‹ๅ‹•ๅญธ็ญ‰็ญ‰็ด„ๅ็จฎ่ซ–่ญ‰๏ผŒๅฎƒๅฏไปฅๆฟ€็™ผไบบ้ซ”ๅŽŸๆœ‰็š„ๅพฉๅฅใ€ๅผท่บซ็š„ๆฝ›่ƒฝ๏ผŒๆ˜ฏ็”จๆˆ‘19ๅนดๆ™‚้–“๏ผŒๆ˜ฏ็”จๆˆ‘็”Ÿๅ‘ฝ๏ผŒ่ฆช่บซ็ ”็™ผใ€้ซ”้ฉ—ๅฎƒ็š„ๆ•ˆ็›Š๏ผŒๅŠ ไธŠๅๅคšๅนด้–‹ๅบ—่กŒ้Šท๏ผŒ็„กๆ•ธๅฎขไบบไฝฟ็”จๆ•ˆ็›Š็š„็ขบ่ชใ€‚ ไบ‹้—œไบบไน‹็”Ÿๅ‘ฝ๏ผŒ็”จๆ‚จ็š„่บซ้ซ”ไพ†ๅ‘Š่จดๆ‚จ๏ผŒ่ซ‹ๆ‰พๅกŠๆœจๆฟ๏ผŒไธ่ฆๆฒนๆผ†๏ผŒๅ‰้ขๅขŠ้ซ˜๏ผŒ่ทŸๆˆ‘ๅฝฑ็‰‡็š„ๅ‰้ซ˜ๅพŒไฝŽ๏ผˆๆœจๅฑ๏ผ‰ไธ€ๆจฃ๏ผŒ้ซ˜ๅบฆไพๆ‚จ็š„่บซ้ซ”็‹€ๆณ่€ŒๅขŠ๏ผŒๅฐ่…ฟ่‚šๆœ‰้ปž็นƒ็ทŠ๏ผŒไธ่ฆ็กฌๆ’๏ผŒ็ด„ไธ‰๏ฝžไบ”ๅˆ†้˜ๅฐ่…ฟ่‚šๅฐฑๆœƒๆ’้–‹ใ€‚็ฌฌไธ€ๆฌก็ซ™ไธ็ฟ’ๆ…ฃๆœƒใ€Œๆป‘ใ€่ซ‹ๅฐๅฟƒใ€‚ไนŸไธ่ฆ่ƒŒ้ ็‰†ๅฃ็ซ™็ซ‹ใ€‚ ๅ…ˆๅ–้ปžๆบซ้–‹ๆฐด๏ผŒ้›™่…ณๆŽŒไธ€ๅฎš่ฆใ€Œๅ…งๅ…ซๅญ—ใ€๏ผŒ่†่“‹ๆ”พ้ฌ†็ซ™็ซ‹๏ผŒ่†่“‹็ต•ๅฐไธ่ƒฝ้ ‚็›ด๏ผŒ่บซๅพฎๅ‰๏ผŒๆœ‰ๅฆ‚็ทดๆฐฃๅŠŸใ€Œ็ซ™ๆจใ€ไธ€ๆจฃ๏ผŒ็ซ™็ซ‹ๅ…ถไธŠ๏ผŒไธŠๅŠ่บซๅฏ่ผ•้ฌ†้šจๆ„ๆ‰ญๆ‰ญๅ‹•ๅ‹•๏ผŒ็ซ™ๅนพๅˆ†้˜็œ‹็œ‹๏ผŒๆ„Ÿๆ‡‰่บซ้ซ”็š„่ฎŠๅŒ–๏ผŒๆ˜ฏๅฆๆœ‰็†ฑๆฐฃไธŠ่บซ๏ผŒๆˆ–ๆตๆฑ—๏ผŒไธญ่ฅฟ้†ซ่ฌ›๏ผˆๆฐฃ่ก€ๅพช็’ฐ่ˆ‡ไปฃ่ฌๅพช็’ฐ๏ผ‰๏ผ›็ทดๆฐฃๅŠŸๅธซ่ชช๏ผˆๆฐฃ๏ผ‰๏ผ›ๅฐๅงๅ€‘ๅซ๏ผˆๆŽ’ๆฏ’๏ผ‰๏ผˆๆธ›่‚ฅ๏ผ‰ใ€‚ๆ—ฅๆœฌ็ ”็ฉถใ€้ซ”ๆบซๅขž้ซ˜ๆ˜ฏๅฏๆ้ซ˜ๅ…็–ซๅŠ›๏ผŒๆœ‰ๅฆ‚ๆ„Ÿๅ†’๏ผˆ็™ผ็‡’่‡ช็™‚๏ผ‰ใ€‚ ๆณจๆ„๏ผ็ฌฌไธ€ๆฌก็ด„10๏ฝž15ๅˆ†้˜่ฎ“่บซ้ซ”้ฉๆ‡‰๏ผŒ้ซ”่ณชไธๅŒ๏ผŒๆœ‰ๆ™‚ๆœƒ็”ข็”Ÿ่ฎ“ไบบๅฎณๆ€•็จฎ็จฎ็— ็—›ใ€ๆ‹‰่‚šๅญใ€้ ญๆšˆใ€ๆƒณๅ๏ผŒๆ‹‰๏ผˆๆฒน๏ผ‰่‚šๅญใ€็–ฒๅ€ฆ๏ผŒๆˆ–ๆœƒๆฑ—ๆต๏ผŒ่ˆ’ๆšข็ญ‰๏ผˆๅฅฝ่ฝ‰ๅๆ‡‰๏ผŒ็ž‘็œฉๅๅฐ„๏ผ‰็พ่ฑก๏ผŒๆฒ’้—œไฟ‚๏ผŒๆŒบ้Ž๏ผŒ่บซ้ซ”ๅฐฑๆœƒๆ…ขๆ…ขๆ”นๅ–„ใ€‚ ่‹ฅๆœ‰็…งๆˆ‘ๆ•™็š„ใ€Œ็‰นๆฎŠใ€ๅ‹•ไฝœๅš๏ผš ๏ผ†ใ€้ผปๅญ้Žๆ•๏ผŒไพฟ็ฅ•๏ผŒๅฅณ็”Ÿ็ถ“็—›๏ผŒๆœ€ๅฟซ็š„่จ˜้Œ„๏ผˆไบ”ๅˆ†้˜๏ผ‰๏ผŒไธ€่ˆฌไบบ็ด„ๅไบ”ๅˆ†้˜ไธŠๅปๆ‰€๏ผŒๆœ€็‚บ้กฏ่‘—ๅฅ‡ๅฅงใ€‚ไพฟ็ฅ•ไธ้€šใ€็—”็˜ก้›ฃๅฅฝใ€‚ ไบบไธๆ˜ฏ็”Ÿไพ†็”Ÿ็—…๏ผŒไธๆ‡‰่ฉฒ็”Ÿๆดปๅœจ็–พ็—…ๅจ่„…ไธญ๏ผŒไนŸไธๅฟ…็”Ÿๆดปๅœจ้…ธ็—›ไธญไนžๆดปใ€‚้ซ”ๅผฑๆ‰ๆœƒๅคš็—…๏ผŒๅฅๅบทๆ‰ๆ˜ฏ้˜ฒ็–ซใ€ไธๅ—ๆ„ŸๆŸ“ใ€ๆฏ่ฌ็—…ใ€็พŽ้บ—ใ€ๅŠๅปถๅนด็›Šๅฃฝ๏ผŒๅ’Œไธ่ขซ้†ซ็”Ÿๆๅš‡๏ผŒ่ณบ้Œข้คŠ้†ซ๏ผŒๆฏ’้บ็ฆๅฎณไธ‹ไธ€ไปฃ๏ผŒๅ”ฏไธ€ๆœ€็ฐกๅ–ฎใ€ๆœ€ๅฟซใ€ๆœ€ๅฅฝใ€ๆœ€ไฝณ็š„่—ฅๆ–น่ˆ‡ๆ–นๆณ•ใ€‚ ๆ–ฐๅ† ่‚บ็‚Ž ้˜ฒ็–ซ๏ผŒ้Ž๏ผ›่‰ๆœจ็š†ๅ…ต๏ผŒไบบๅฟƒๆƒถๆƒถ๏ผŒๅš‡ๆญป็š„ๆฏ”็—…ๆญป็š„ๅคšใ€‚ ้˜ฒ็–ซ๏ผŒ้Ž๏ผ›่ฌไบ‹ๅœๆปฏ๏ผŒ็ถ“ๆฟŸ่•ญๆข๏ผŒ้ค“ๆญป็š„ๆฏ”็—…ๆญป็š„ๅคšใ€‚ ้˜ฒ็–ซใ€้Ž๏ผ›้†ซ็™‚ๅ–ฎไฝไบ‚ไพ†๏ผŒๅ‡้†ซ็™‚ไน‹ๅ่ฃฝ้€ ็™ฝ่‰ฒๆๆ€–๏ผŒ็ถๆžถๅŸทๆ”ฟ่€…๏ผŒๆ”ฟๅบœๅคฑ่ƒฝ๏ผŒๅŠ ไธŠๅช’้ซ”ๆ•ดๅคฉๅ…จ้ขๆ€ง๏ผŒ็„ก้–“ๆ–ทๆ’ญๅฐŽ๏ผŒ็™พๅง“ๆ…Œๆ๏ผŒ็คพๆœƒๅคฑๅบ๏ผŒไบ‚็Ÿฃใ€‚ ้˜ฒ็–ซใ€้Ž๏ผ›้†ซ็—…ๅ…ˆ้†ซๅฟƒ๏ผŒ่บซๅฟƒๆ˜ฏไธ€้ซ”ๅ…ฉ้ข๏ผŒ็›ธไบ’็‰ฝๆ“Š๏ผŒไบ”่‡Ÿไบ”ๆƒ…๏ผŒๆญฆๆผข่‚บ็‚ŽไนŸๅฐฑๆ˜ฏ่‚บ่‡Ÿๆœ‰ๅ•้กŒ๏ผŒๆ‚ฒ้ณดๅŠ ้‡่‚บ่‡Ÿ่ฒ ๆ“”๏ผŒๆ‚ฒ่‡ณๅ‚ท่‚บใ€‚้ฉšๆ…Œใ€ๆ‡ผๆ€•๏ผŒไปฃ่ฌใ€ๆŽ’ๆณ„ๅคฑ่ƒฝ๏ผŒ้ฉšๆๅ‚ท่…Žใ€‚ๆ“”ๅฟƒใ€ๆ†‚้ฌฑใ€็กไธๅฏ๏ผŒ้ฃŸไธ็Ÿฅๅ‘ณ๏ผŒ่ƒƒ็ดๅ‘†ๆปฏๅ‚ท่ƒƒ๏ผŒๅคšๆ†‚ๆ€ๅ‚ท่„พ่ƒƒใ€‚ๅฟƒๆ–ผๆฐดๆทฑ็ซ็†ฑไธญ็…Ž็†ฌ๏ผŒๆƒถๆƒถไธๅฏ็ต‚ๆ—ฅ๏ผŒๅชๆœƒๅŠ ๅŠ‡ๆ‚ฃ่€…็—…ๆƒ…ๆƒกๅŒ–๏ผŒๅ’Œไฝฟ้ซ”ๅผฑ่€…ๆ˜“ๅ—ๆ„ŸๆŸ“๏ผŒๆ“ดๅคง็–ซๆƒ…ใ€‚ ไธ€ใ€ๆˆ‘ๅฏไปฅๆŒ‡ๆญฃ้†ซ็™‚้Œฏ่ชค๏ผŒๆธ›ๅฐ‘1/5๏ฝž1/2็š„ๆญปไบก็Ž‡ใ€‚้†ซ็”Ÿๆ˜ฏๅœจ้†ซ็”Ÿ๏ผŸ้‚„ๆ˜ฏ้†ซๆญป๏ผŸ็ซŸ่ฎ“็—…ๆ‚ฃๅœจ็—…ๅบŠไธŠไปฐ็ก่ˆ‡่ถด็ก๏ผŒๅŠ ้‡ๅŠ ๅฟซ็—…ๆ‚ฃ็—…ๆƒ…่ˆ‡ๆญปไบก๏ผˆ็พฉๅคงๅˆฉใ€ไฟฏ่‡ฅ้€šๆฐฃๆญปไบก็Ž‡ๆœ€้ซ˜๏ผ‰ใ€‚ ้†ซ็™‚ไน‹่จฃ๏ผ็•ถไปฅ็ก็œ ๅฑ…ๅ…ˆ๏ผŒ็ก็œ ๅฏไปฅๆ”พ้ฌ†่บซๅฟƒ๏ผŒๅฏไปฅ่ˆ’็ทฉ็—›่‹ฆ๏ผŒๅฏไปฅๆป‹้คŠ็”Ÿๅ‘ฝ๏ผŒๅฏไปฅๆฒป็™’ไธ€ๅˆ‡๏ผŒๆ˜ฏ่บซ้ซ”ๅพฉๅฅใ€ไผ‘้คŠ็”Ÿๆฏใ€้คŠ็ฒพ่“„้Šณ๏ผŒๆขๅพฉ้ซ”่ƒฝๆœ€ๅฅฝ็š„่—ฅๆ–นใ€‚ไฝ†ใ€่ฎ“่‚บ่‡Ÿใ€ๅ‘ผๅธ้“ใ€ๆถˆๅŒ–ใ€ๅ…็–ซ็ณป็ตฑๅทฒๆœ‰ๆฏ›็—…็š„็—…ๆ‚ฃใ€Œไปฐ็กใ€๏ผŒไฝฟ่บซ้ซ”ๆ‰€ๆœ‰ๅ™จๅฎ˜ๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒ็ญ‰ๆ–ผๆ˜ฏ่ฆไป–ๆ—ฉไบก๏ผ ไปฐ็ก๏ผš 1ใ€ๆ˜ฏ่ฆ็—…ๆ‚ฃ็š„ๅ‘ฝ๏ผŒ่ฎ“็—…ๆ‚ฃ่‡ชๅทฑ้€ผๆญป่‡ชๅทฑ๏ผŒๅฐ็—…้คŠๅคง็—…๏ผŒๅŠ ้‡็—…ๆƒ…๏ผŒๅŠ ้€Ÿๆญปไบกใ€‚ไบบๆ˜ฏๅœฐ็ƒ็ฌฌไธ€ไปฝๅญ๏ผŒ้ญšๆญปไบ†๏ผŒ้ญš่‚šๅญๆœไธŠ๏ผˆ้ญš็ฟป่‚š๏ผ‰๏ผŒๅ‹•็‰ฉๆญปไบ†๏ผˆๅ››่…ณๆœๅคฉ๏ผ‰๏ผŒไบบๆญปไบ†๏ผˆๆญปไบบ่บบ๏ผ‰๏ผŒ้€ฃๆœ€็ฐกๅ–ฎ็š„๏ผˆ่Ÿ‘่ž‚๏ผ‰ๆญปไบ†๏ผŒไนŸๆ˜ฏ่‚šๅญๆœไธŠใ€‚ 2ใ€้•่ƒŒๅœฐ็ƒ็”Ÿ็‰ฉ็”Ÿ็†็š„็”Ÿๅญ˜ๅฅ‘ๆฉŸใ€‚ไธ็ฎกๆ˜ฏๅคฉไธŠ้ฃ›็š„้ณฅใ€่œœ่œ‚ใ€่ด่ถใ€่šŠๅญ๏ผ›ๆˆ–ๅœฐไธŠ่ตฐ็š„่€่™Žใ€็พŠใ€็‰›ใ€่ฑฌใ€้›žใ€้ดจใ€่Ÿ‘่ž‚๏ผ›ๆˆ–ๅœจๅœฐ้ข็ˆฌ็š„่›‡ใ€่šฏ่š“ใ€่Ÿฒ๏ผ›ๆˆ–ๆตทใ€ๆฒณ่ฃกๆธธ็š„้ญšใ€่ฆ็จฎ็จฎ็”Ÿ็‰ฉ๏ผŒๅ…ถๅ…ง่‡Ÿ้ƒฝๆ˜ฏๆ‡ธ้™„ๅœจ่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจไธ‹็š„่ƒธใ€่…น่…”ๅ…งใ€‚ 3ใ€ไปฐ็กๆ˜ฏๅœจๅ›้€†่‡ชๅทฑ็š„่บซ้ซ”๏ผŒๅŠ ้€Ÿๆญปไบกใ€‚่บซ้ซ”ๆ‰€ๆœ‰่‡Ÿๅ™จใ€่ผธ้€็ฎกใ€้€š้“้ƒฝๆ˜ฏ่ปŸๅผฑๅ™จๅฎ˜๏ผŒไปฐ็ก๏ผๆ”คๅนณๆ”พ็ฝฎ๏ผŒ็ต•ๅฐๆœƒไธๅˆฉๅ’Œ้˜ป็ค™่บซ้ซ”็”Ÿ็†็”ŸๅŒ–็’ฐๅขƒๆญฃๅธธ่ผธ้€๏ผŒ้‹ๅŒ–ๅŠๅพช็’ฐๆšข้ †ใ€‚ 4ใ€่‚บ่‡Ÿๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒไธๅˆฉ่‚บ่‡Ÿใ€Œๆ“ดๅผตใ€ๅฎน็ด็ฉบๆฐฃใ€‚ 5ใ€่‚บ่‡Ÿๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒ้˜ป็ค™่‚บ่‡Ÿๆ“ดๅผต้‹ๅ‹•๏ผŒไธๅˆฉๆ–ฐใ€ๅปขๆฐฃ้ซ”ไบคๆ›ใ€‚ 6ใ€่‚บ่‡Ÿๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒๅธๆฐฃๆ™‚๏ผŒๅพ—ไป˜ๅ‡บๆ›ดๅคš้ซ”ๅŠ›ไพ†ๆ“ดๅผต่‚บ่‡Ÿ๏ผŒๆถˆ่€—้ซ”่ƒฝใ€‚ 7ใ€่‚บ่‡Ÿๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒๅ‘ผๅธๆ€ฅไฟƒ๏ผŒๅธๆฐง้‡ๅฐ‘๏ผŒ็ผบๆฐง๏ผŒ้ ญ่…ฆๆ˜ๆฒˆ๏ผŒ็„กๅŠ›ๅ’Œ็–ฒๅ€ฆใ€‚ 8ใ€่‚บ่‡Ÿๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒๅ‘ผๅธๆ€ฅไฟƒ๏ผŒๆ–ฐใ€่ˆŠๆฐฃ้ซ”ไบคๆ›ๅทฎ๏ผŒๅปขๆฐฃ็ฉ้ซ”ๅ…งๅพช็’ฐ๏ผŒไธๆญปไนŸๅ‚ทใ€‚ 9ใ€ๆ˜ฏๅœจ่ทŸ่‡ชๅทฑ็š„่บซ้ซ”ๅ”ฑๅ่ชฟ๏ผŒๅ‘ผๅธ้“ใ€ๆฐฃ็ฎก่ฎŠ็ช„๏ผŒไธๅˆฉๆญฃๅธธๅ‘ผๅธไพ†ๆขๅพฉ้ซ”ๅŠ›ๅ’ŒๅพฉๅŽŸใ€‚ 10ใ€้ผปๅญ”ๆ˜“ๅ ตๅกž๏ผŒไธๅˆฉๆ‚ฃ่€…ๅ‘ผๅธๆšข้ †ๅ’ŒไนŸๅฝฑ้Ÿฟ็ก็œ ๅ“่ณชใ€‚ 11ใ€ๆ˜ฏๆœ€ไธ่ก›็”Ÿ็š„็กๅงฟ๏ผŒ้ผปๅฃๆœไธŠ๏ผŒ้™คๆ˜“ๅธ้€ฒ้ซ’็ฉบๆฐฃ่ˆ‡็ดฐ่Œใ€็•ฐ็‰ฉไนŸๅฎนๆ˜“ๅพž้ผปๅญ”ๅ’Œๅฃ่…”้€ฒๅ…ฅ้ซ”ๅ…งใ€‚ 12ใ€ๅพŒ่ˆŒๆ นๅฎนๆ˜“ไธ‹ๆฒ‰๏ผŒๅ ตๅกžๆฐฃ็ฎกๅ’Œๅ‘ผๅธ็ณป็ตฑ๏ผŒ่ช˜็™ผไฝต็™ผ็—‡ๅ’Œ็ก็œ ๅ‘ผๅธไธญๆญข็—‡ใ€‚ 13ใ€ๅฃๆฐดๆˆ–้ฃฒ้ฃŸๆ˜“ๆตๅ…ฅๆฐฃ็ฎกๅผ•่ตทๅ—†ๅ’ณ๏ผŒ้€ ๆˆๅคง่…ฆ็ผบๆฐง๏ผŒๅฝขๆˆไฝŽ่ก€ๆฐง็—‡๏ผŒ่ช˜็™ผไฝต็™ผ็—‡ๆˆ–็Œๆญปใ€‚ 14ใ€ๅ–‰ๅšจๆœ‰็—ฐๆˆ–็•ฐ็‰ฉๆ™‚ไธๆ˜“ๅๅ‡บใ€‚่ผ•่€…๏ผŒๅฏ่ƒฝ่ฎ“้€™ไบ›็ฉข็‰ฉๅ›žๆตๆฐฃ็ฎก๏ผŒ้€ ๆˆๅธๅ…ฅๆ€ง่‚บ็‚Ž๏ผŒๅŠ ้‡็—…ๆƒ…ใ€‚ 15ใ€ๅ–‰ๅšจๆœ‰็—ฐๆˆ–็•ฐ็‰ฉๆ™‚๏ผŒ่‹ฅ็„กๅŠ›็ฟป่บซๆˆ–่ตทๅบŠ๏ผŒ้‡่€…๏ผŒๅช่ƒฝๅฟƒๆ…Œๆฐฃๆ€ฅ่บบๅœจๅบŠไธŠ๏ผŒ็—›่‹ฆ็ผบๆฐง๏ผŒ็ช’ๆฏ่€Œไบกใ€‚ 16ใ€่…ธ่ƒƒๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒ่ •ๅ‹•ไธ่‰ฏ๏ผŒไธๅˆฉๆถˆๅŒ–็ณป็ตฑๅŠ้ฃŸ็‰ฉ้‹ๅŒ–ไธ่‰ฏ๏ผŒ่บซ้ซ”็ผบ้คŠๅˆ†ๆป‹้คŠ๏ผŒ้ซ”ๅŠ›่กฐๅผฑใ€‚ 17ใ€่…ธ่ƒƒๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒ่บซ้ซ”็ผบๆป‹้คŠ๏ผŒ่ก€ๆถฒๅพช็’ฐใ€ไปฃ่ฌใ€ๆŠตๆŠ—ๅŠ›ใ€ๅ…็–ซๅŠ›ใ€ๅพฉๅŽŸๅŠ›็จฎ็จฎๆฉŸ่ƒฝไนŸๆœƒ้™ไฝŽใ€‚ 18ใ€่…ธ่ƒƒๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒ่ƒƒ็ดไธ่‰ฏ๏ผŒๅ‚ท่…ธ่ƒƒ๏ผŒ่ฃฝ้€ ๆ†‚้ฌฑ็—‡ใ€‚่บซๅฟƒๆ˜ฏไธ€้ซ”ๅ…ฉ้ข๏ผŒไธญ้†ซไบ‘๏ผ›ไบ”่‡Ÿไบ”ๆƒ…๏ผŒๅคšๆ€ๆ…ฎๅ‚ท่„พ่ƒƒ๏ผŒๅคšๆ€ๆ…ฎๆƒณๅคชๅคš๏ผŒ่ฅฟ้†ซๅซ๏ผˆๆ†‚้ฌฑ็—‡๏ผ‰ใ€‚ 19ใ€ๆ˜ฏๅœจ่ทŸ่‡ชๅทฑ็š„่บซ้ซ”้€ ๅ๏ผŒ่บซ้ซ”ๆ‰€ๆœ‰่‡Ÿๅ™จใ€่ผธ้€็ฎกใ€้€š้“ๆ‰€ๆœ‰ๅ™จๅฎ˜ๆ‰็ช„๏ผŒ็”Ÿ็†็”ŸๅŒ–็’ฐๅขƒ้‹ๅŒ–ๅฃ“ๅŠ›ๅขž้ซ˜๏ผŒๅฎนๆ˜“ไฝฟไบบ็”ข็”Ÿ่ƒธๆ‚ถใ€ๆ†‹ๆ…Œใ€ๆฟ€่บ็ญ‰่ฒ ้ขๆƒ…็ท’ใ€‚ 20ใ€ๅ…็–ซ็ณป็ตฑ๏ผŒ่ƒธ่…บใ€่„พ่‡ŸๅŠๆท‹ๅทด็ตใ€ๆท‹ๅทด็ฎกใ€ๆท‹ๅทด่…บๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒๆๅ‚ทๆญฃๅธธ้‹ๅŒ–๏ผŒๅŠ ้€Ÿ็–ซๆƒ…ๆ“ดๆ•ฃใ€‚ 21ใ€้•ๅ็”Ÿ็‰ฉ็”Ÿๅญ˜ๆณ•ๅ‰‡๏ผŒๅฐ‡ไบบ้ซ”ๆœ€่„†ๅผฑ๏ผŒ็šฎ่†š่ผƒ่–„็š„่…น้ƒจ๏ผŒๅฎนๆ˜“ๆ•ฃ็†ฑๅ’Œๅฎนๆ˜“ๅ—ๅฏ’็š„้ƒจไฝ๏ผŒๆšด้œฒๆ–ผๅค–๏ผŒ่ฎ“ๅ…ง่‡Ÿๅ’Œๆถฒ้ซ”ๅ—ๅ†ท๏ผŒๆ˜“่‘—ๆถผๆ„Ÿๅ†’ใ€‚ 22ใ€่ก€้‡็†ฑๅ‰‡่กŒ๏ผŒ้‡ๅ†ทๅ‰‡ๅ‡๏ผŒๅฐ‡ๅฎนๆ˜“ๆ•ฃ็†ฑๅ’Œๅฎนๆ˜“ๅ—ๅฏ’็š„่…น้ƒจ๏ผŒๆšด้œฒๆ–ผ็ฉบๆฐฃไธญ๏ผŒๅฝฑ้Ÿฟๆฐฃ่ก€ๅพช็’ฐ๏ผŒ่ˆ‡ๆ–ฐ้™ณไปฃ่ฌใ€‚ 23ใ€ๆ˜ฏๅœจ่ทŸ่‡ชๅทฑ็š„่บซ้ซ”ๅฐๆŠ—๏ผŒๆๅฎณ่บซ้ซ”่‡ชๆœ‰็š„่‡ช็™‚ใ€ไฟฎ้คŠใ€ๅพฉๅŽŸๆฉŸๅˆถใ€‚ 24ใ€ๆ˜ฏๅœจ่ทŸๅคง่‡ช็„ถๅ”ฑๅ่ชฟ๏ผŒ้™ฐ้™ฝไธๅˆ†๏ผŒไบบๆ˜ฏ่ทŸ่‘—ๅคช้™ฝ่€Œๆดปๅ‹•ไผ‘้คŠ๏ผŒ็™ฝๅคฉ่บซ้ซ”่ฆไผธๅฑ•๏ผˆ็›ด็ซ‹๏ผ‰ๆดปๅ‹•ๅšๆดป๏ผŒๆ™šไธŠ็ก่ฆบ่บซ้ซ”ๆ˜ฏ่ฆๆ”พ้ฌ†ไผ‘้คŠๆฒๆ›ฒๆˆ๏ผˆๅผ“ๅญ—ๅž‹๏ผ‰ใ€‚ 25ใ€่ƒŒ้›ข่ฌ็‰ฉๅœจๆฏ่‚š่ฃกๅญ•่‚ฒๆˆ้•ท็š„ๆœฌๆ€งใ€Œๆญธๅ…ƒ็กๅงฟใ€๏ผŒ็ผบๅฎ‰ๅ…จๆ„Ÿ๏ผŒ่บซๅฟƒ้›ฃๆ”พ้ฌ†ไผ‘้คŠใ€‚ 26ใ€่ƒŒๅ›ไบบ้ซ”็”Ÿๅ‘ฝๆœฌๅฐฑๆœ‰็š„่‡ชๆˆ‘ไฟฎ้คŠใ€ไฟ่ญท็š„ๆœฌ่ƒฝ๏ผŒไฝ ๆˆ‘ๆ™šไธŠ็ก่ฆบ่บซ้ซ”ๆœ‰ไธ่ˆ’้ฉๆˆ–ๆœƒๅ†ทๆ™‚๏ผŒ่บซ้ซ”้ƒฝๆœƒ่‡ชๆˆ‘ๆฒๆ›ฒๆˆ๏ผˆๅผ“ๅญ—ๅž‹๏ผ‰๏ผŒไพ†่ˆ’็ทฉ็–ผ็—›ใ€ไฟๆš–ๅŠไฟฎ่ญทใ€‚ 27ใ€ๆ˜ฏๅœจๅ›้€†่‡ชๅทฑ็š„่บซ้ซ”๏ผŒไบบ้กž็š„ๅฅๅบทๆ˜ฏๅปบ็ฏ‰ๅœจๆญฃๅฅ็š„่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจไธŠใ€‚ๅพˆๅ‚ท่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจ๏ผŒๅฐคๅ…ถๆ˜ฏ่…ฐๆคŽ2๏ฝž4ๆคŽ้–“ๆคŽๆฟไธ€็›ดๅฃ“่ฟซ่‘—๏ผŒๆฒ’่ƒฝๆ”พ้ฌ†ไผ‘้คŠ๏ผŒๅ…จ่บซ็ญ‹ใ€้ชจใ€่‚Œ่‚‰ๅƒต็กฌใ€‚ 28ใ€้›™่…ณๆŽŒๆˆๅค–ๅ…ซๅญ—ๅž‹๏ผŒๅฐŽ่‡ด้ชจ็›†่…”้ฌ†ๆ‡ˆ๏ผŒ่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจๆœ‰็•ฐๆจฃ๏ผŒ็„ก็—…ๆ‰พ็—…็”Ÿ๏ผŒ็”ทๅฃซๆ”่ญท่…บ่‚ฅๅคง๏ผŒๅฅณๅฃซๅฐฟๅคฑ็ฆ๏ผŒ้ชจ่ณช็–้ฌ†๏ผŒ็—…ๆ˜ฏๆฒปไธๅฎŒใ€‚ไบบ้กž็š„ๅฅๅบทๆ˜ฏๅปบ็ฏ‰ๅœจๆญฃๅฅ็š„่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจไธŠใ€‚ 29ใ€็‘œ็ˆใ€Œๆ”คๅฑๅผใ€๏ผŒๅ››่‚ขๆ”คๆ‡ˆๅฟ˜็ฉบ่บซๅฟƒ๏ผŒๆ˜ฏๅฐ่บซ้ซ”ๅพˆๅฅฝ็š„ไธ€ๅผ้‹ๅ‹•๏ผŒ็„ถ็‚บไฝ•ๅซใ€Œๆ”คๅฑๅผใ€๏ผŒไธๅผ„ๅ€‹ๅฅฝๅ็จฑ๏ผŒ้กงๅๆ€็พฉ๏ผŒ่ทŸไบบๆญปไธ€ๆจฃใ€Œๆญปไบบ่บบใ€ๆ”พ้ฌ†ๅฟ˜็ฉบไธ€ๅˆ‡๏ผŒไพ†่ˆ’็ทฉ่บซๅฟƒๆ˜ฏๅพˆๅฅฝ็š„ๅ‹•ไฝœ๏ผŒไฝ†ใ€Œ้Žใ€ไน…๏ผŒๅ…จ่บซ่‚Œ่‚‰ใ€็ญ‹้ชจใ€็™ฑๆ‡ˆๅคชไน…๏ผŒๅฐ่บซ้ซ”็•ถ็„ถๅพˆๅ‚ทใ€‚ 30ใ€ไฟฏ็ก๏ผŒไฟฏ่‡ฅ้€šๆฐฃ๏ผŒไนŸ็ต•ๅฐๆ˜ฏ้Œฏ๏ผŒ้™ค่…น้ƒจๅฃ“่‘—ไธๅˆฉๅ‘ผๅธ๏ผŒๅ…ถ่ƒธ่…บใ€่„พ่‡ŸๅŠๆท‹ๅทด็ตใ€ๆท‹ๅทด็ฎกใ€ๆท‹ๅทด่…บ็จฎ็จฎๅ…็–ซ็ณป็ตฑไนŸๆœƒๅฃ“่‘—ๆ”คๆ‰๏ผŒๅŠ ้‡็—…ๆƒ…ใ€‚ 31ใ€ไปฐ็กใ€ไฟฏ็กโ†’ไฝ้™ข้•ทโ†’ๅฐ็—…้คŠๅคง็—…โ†’้†ซ้™ขๆปฟ็ˆ†โ†’ๅŠ ้‡็—…ๆƒ…โ†’็”จๅ‘ผๅธๅ™จโ†’ๅ…ซๆˆๆญปไบก็Ž‡ใ€‚ 32ใ€้‚„ๆœ‰็™พไพ†ๆข็ก็œ ่ˆ‡็กๅงฟ็š„่ซ–่ญ‰ๅˆ†ๆž๏ผŒไธๅ†่ˆ‰่ฟฐใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€้†ซๅธซ็ฝทๅทฅ๏ผŒไบบๆญปๅฐ‘ไธ€ๅŠ๏ผŒ็ถฒๅ‚ณ๏ผŒ้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅๆ™‚้–“่ถŠ้•ท๏ผŒๅ…จๅœ‹็š„ๆญปไบก็Ž‡่ถŠไฝŽใ€‚ๆณข็พŽ็‰นๆ‹‰ๅšๅฃซ๏ผˆDr.Bruce Pomerant๏ผ‰ๅฐ80ๅนดไปฃ่ฅฟๆ–นๅœ‹ๅฎถ้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅ่ˆ‡ๆญปไบก็Ž‡ไธ‹้™็š„่ชฟๆŸฅๆŒ‡ๅ‡บ๏ผŒๆญปไบก็Ž‡็š„ไธ‹้™่ˆ‡้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅๆ—ฅๆœŸ็š„้•ท็Ÿญๆˆๆญฃๆฏ”๏ผ›ไนŸๅฐฑๆ˜ฏ่ชช๏ผŒ้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅๆ™‚้–“่ถŠ้•ท๏ผŒๅ…จๅœ‹็š„ๆญปไบก็Ž‡่ถŠไฝŽใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€1976ๅนดๅ“ฅๅ€ซๆฏ”ไบž็š„ๅ ก้ซ˜ๅก”ๅธ‚็š„้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅ52ๅคฉ,ๅ‡บ็พไบ†ไธ€ๅ€‹่ขซ็จฑ็‚บโ€œไธๅฐ‹ๅธธ็š„ๅ‰ฏไฝœ็”จโ€๏ผšๅฐฑๆ˜ฏ็•ถๅœฐๆญปไบก็Ž‡ไธ‹้™ไบ†35%ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€1976ๅนด็พŽๅœ‹ๆด›ๆ‰ๆฉŸ๏ผŒ้†ซ็”Ÿๅฐ้†ซ็™‚ไบ‹ๆ•…ไฟ้šชๆผฒๅƒนไธๆปฟ่€Œ็ฝทๅทฅ็คบๅจ๏ผŒๅ…จๅธ‚็—…ไบบๆญปไบก็Ž‡ไธ‹้™ไบ†18% ๏ผ†ใ€1973ๅนด๏ผŒไปฅ่‰ฒๅˆ—ๅ…จๅœ‹้†ซ็”Ÿๅคง็ฝทๅทฅใ€‚็‚บๆœŸ้•ท้”ไธ€ๅ€‹ๆœˆ๏ผŒๆ นๆ“š่€ถ่ทฏๆ’’ๅ†ทๅŸ‹่‘ฌๅ”ๆœƒ็š„็ตฑ่จˆๆŒ‡ๅ‡บ่ฉฒๆœˆ็š„ๅ…จๅœ‹ๆญปไบกไบบๆ•ธไธ‹้™ไบ†50%ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅๅนดๅพŒ๏ผŒ1983ๅนด๏ผŒไปฅ่‰ฒๅˆ—้†ซ็”Ÿๅ†ๆฌก่ˆ‰่กŒๅ…จๅœ‹็ธฝ็ฝทๅทฅ๏ผŒ้€™ๆฌก็ฝทๅทฅ็š„ๆ™‚้–“่ผƒ้•ท๏ผŒ้•ท้”85ๅคฉ๏ผŒ็ฅžๅฅ‡็š„ไบ‹ๆƒ…็™ผ็”Ÿไบ†๏ผš้ŽๅพŒ๏ผŒไปฅ่‰ฒๅˆ—่€ถ่ทฏๆ’’ๅ†ทๅŸ‹่‘ฌๅ”ๆœƒๅˆๅšไบ†ไธ€ๆฌก็ตฑ่จˆ๏ผŒๅœจ้€™85ๅคฉไธญ๏ผŒๅ…จๅœ‹ไบบๅฃ็š„ๆญปไบก็Ž‡ๅˆไธ‹้™ไบ†50%ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅœจๅŠ ๆ‹ฟๅคงๆ›ผๅฐผๆฟคๅทด็œ๏ผˆManitoba๏ผ‰็š„้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅๅ…ฉ้€ฑ๏ผŒๆญปไบก็Ž‡ไธ‹้™็‚บ20%ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅœจไธๅˆ—้ก›ๅ“ฅๅ€ซๆฏ”ไบž็œ๏ผˆBritishColumbia๏ผ‰็š„้†ซ็”Ÿ็ฝทๅทฅ3้€ฑ๏ผŒๆญปไบก็Ž‡ไธ‹้™็‚บ30%ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๆ นๆ“š๏ผšไธ–็•Œ่ก›็”Ÿ็ต„็น”่ณ‡ๆ–™่ชชๅ€‹ไบบ็š„ๅฅๅบทๅ’Œ็”Ÿๅ‘ฝ๏ผš15%ๅ–ๆฑบๆ–ผ้บๅ‚ณใ€‚7%ๅ–ๆฑบๆ–ผ่‡ช็„ถ็ฝๅฎณ๏ผŒๆฐฃๅ€™็š„ๅฝฑ้Ÿฟใ€‚8%ๅ–ๆฑบๆ–ผ้†ซ็™‚ๆขไปถใ€‚10%ๅ–ๆฑบๆ–ผ็คพๆœƒๅ› ็ด ๏ผŒ่ฒงๅ›ฐ้ฃข้ค“ใ€ๆ„ๅค–ๅ‚ทๅฎณใ€ไป–ๆฎบใ€่‡ชๆฎบ็ญ‰ใ€‚ๅฆๅค–60%็š„ไบบๅ–ๆฑบๆ–ผ่‡ชๅทฑ็š„็Ÿฅ่ญ˜่ˆ‡่ง€ๅฟตใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€็ถฒๅ‚ณ๏ผŒไธ–็•Œ่ก›็”Ÿ็ต„็น”่ชฟๆŸฅๆŒ‡ๅ‡บ๏ผŒๅ…จ็ƒ็š„็—…ไบบๆœ‰1/3ๆ˜ฏๆญปๆ–ผไธๅˆ็†็”จ่—ฅ๏ผŒ่€Œไธๆ˜ฏ็–พ็—…ๆœฌ่บซใ€‚้‚„ๆœ‰1/3ๆญปๆ–ผ้†ซๆบๆ€งไบ‹ๆ•…ใ€‚ไนŸๅฐฑๆ˜ฏ่ชชไธ‰ๅˆ†ไน‹ไธ€ๆ˜ฏ่ขซ่—ฅๆญป็š„๏ผŒไธ‰ๅˆ†ไน‹ไธ€ๆ˜ฏๆฒปๆญป็š„ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€้†ซ่€…ๆ•‘ๆ€ฅๅ’Œๆ„ๅค–ๅ‚ทๅฎณ๏ผŒ่‹ฅ็„ก้™ไธŠ็ถฑๅ‰‡็‚บ้†ซ้‚ชใ€‚้†ซ็™‚ๅช่ƒฝ็‚บ่ผ”๏ผŒไธ่ƒฝๆฒป็™’๏ผŒไธ€ๅˆ‡้†ซ็™‚ๅฐๆฒป็—…ไพ†่ชช้ƒฝๆ˜ฏๆฒปๆจ™๏ผŒไธๆ˜ฏๆฒปๆœฌใ€‚็œŸๆญฃ่ƒฝๆฒป็™’ๆˆ‘ๅ€‘่บซ้ซ”็š„็–พ็—…๏ผŒๅชๆœ‰่บซ้ซ”่‡ชๆœ‰็š„็”Ÿๅ‘ฝๅŠ›๏ผˆๅฅๅบท๏ผ‰ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€่—ฅๆ˜ฏๆฏ’๏ผŒๅฆ‚ๅธธๅฏ„้ ้กžๅ›บ้†‡๏ผŒๆญข็—›่—ฅ๏ผŒๆถˆ็‚Ž็‰‡๏ผŒๆŠ—็”Ÿ็ด ๏ผŒ้ˆฃๅŠ‘๏ผŒๆŠ—็ฒพ็ฅž่—ฅ็‰ฉ๏ผŒๆธ›่‚ฅ่—ฅ๏ผŒ้™่ก€ๅฃ“๏ผŒๆŽง่ก€็ณ–็จฎ็จฎ๏ผŒ็ญ‰ๅฆ‚ๅƒๆฏ’ๅ“๏ผŒๅ‚ทไบ”่‡Ÿๅฎณๅ…ญไฟฏ๏ผŒๆŠŠ่…Žๆด—ใ€‚ๆ›ด็”š๏ผšๆ„ๅฟ—ๆ˜“่–„ๅผฑ๏ผŒ็ต‚ๅ‘ฝไบกใ€‚ ไบŒใ€ๆˆ‘ๅฏไปฅๆ•™่‡ช็™‚ๅ‹•ไฝœ๏ผŒ่ฎ“1/5๏ฝž1/2็š„ๆ‚ฃ่€…ๆๆ—ฉๅบทๅพฉๅ‡บ้™ขใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅช่ฆๆญฆๆผข่‚บ็‚Žๆ‚ฃ่€…่ƒฝ็ซ™๏ผŒ็…งๆˆ‘ๆ•™็š„๏ผŒๅšๅนพๅ€‹ใ€Œ็‰นๆฎŠใ€็ฐกๅ–ฎๅ‹•ไฝœ๏ผŒๅฐฑ่ƒฝๆ้ซ˜ๅ…็–ซ็ณป็ตฑ๏ผˆ่ƒธ่…บ๏ผŒ่„พ่‡Ÿใ€ๆท‹ๅทด็ตใ€ๆท‹ๅทด็ฎก็ญ‰ใ€‚๏ผ‰๏ผŒ่ˆ‡ๆœ€้‡่ฆ่‚บ่‡Ÿ่ˆ’ๅฑ•ใ€‚ๅฐฑ่ƒฝๆฏ”็พๆœ‰็š„้†ซ็™‚ๆณ•ๆœ‰ๆ›ดๅฟซใ€ๆ›ดๅฎ‰ๅ…จ๏ผŒๆฒ’ๅ‰ฏไฝœ็”จๅพŒ้บ็—‡๏ผŒไพ†ๅ•Ÿ็™ผๆ‚ฃ่€…่บซ้ซ”่‡ชๆœ‰็š„่‡ช็™‚ๆฉŸๅˆถใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅฏไปฅๆ‰พๆ‚ฃๆœ‰ๆญฆๆผข่‚บ็‚Ž็š„่‡ช้ก˜่€…๏ผŒๅช่ฆๅ–ไบ›ๆบซ้–‹ๆฐด๏ผŒๅ…ถไป–้ƒฝไธ็”จ๏ผŒ็…งๆˆ‘ๆ•™็š„๏ผŒๅšๅนพๅ€‹ใ€Œ็‰นๆฎŠใ€็ฐกๅ–ฎๅ‹•ไฝœ๏ผŒ2๏ฝž10ๅคฉไพฟๅฏ็Ÿฅ้“ๆ•ˆ็›Šใ€‚ไธๅ‚ท่บซ๏ผŒๆฒ’ๆœ‰ๅพŒ้บ็—‡ใ€‚ ไธ‰ใ€ๆˆ‘ๅฏไปฅๆ•™ๅฐŽๅฅๅบท๏ผŒ้™ไฝŽ1/5๏ฝž1/2็š„็–ซๆƒ…ๆ“ดๆ•ฃใ€‚ ไบบไธๆ˜ฏ็”Ÿไพ†็”Ÿ็—…๏ผŒไบบ่ฆๅฅๅบทใ€ๆฏ่ฌ็—…ใ€ๅปถๅนด็›Šๅฃฝ๏ผŒๅฟ…ๅพ—้ ่‡ชๅทฑๅพžๅฟƒ้–‹ๅง‹๏ผŒๆญฃ็ขบ็š„๏ผš 1ใ€้ซ”ๅผฑไธๅฅๅบท๏ผŒๆ‰ๆœƒๅคš็—…ใ€้ข้ปƒๆžฏ่Žใ€่™›่ƒ–๏ผŒๆ˜“่กฐ่€ใ€ๆ˜“ๆ„ŸๆŸ“ๆตๆ„Ÿใ€่‚บ็‚Žใ€่…ธ็—…ๆฏ’็ญ‰็–พ็—…ใ€‚ๅฅๅบทๆ‰ๆ˜ฏๆฏ่ฌ็—…ใ€ๅปถๅนด็›ŠๅฃฝๆƒŸไธ€ๆœ€ๅฅฝใ€ๆœ€็œใ€ๆœ€็ฐกๅ–ฎ็š„่—ฅๆ–น่ˆ‡ไฟ่ญ‰ใ€‚ 2ใ€ๆ…‹ๅบฆๆฑบๅฎšไบบ็”Ÿ๏ผ›ๅฅๅบท้ ่‡ชๅทฑ๏ผŒ็ต•ๅฐๆ˜ฏๆฏๅ€‹ไบบใ€ๆฏๅ€‹ๅฎถๅบญ๏ผŒๆฏๅคฉๆœ€้‡่ฆๅฟ…็Ÿฅใ€ๅฟ…ๅญธใ€ๅฟ…ๅš็š„ไบ‹ใ€‚ไบบไธๅญธ็ฟ’ๅฅๅบท้ ่‡ชๅทฑ๏ผŒ็–พ็—…้…ธ็—›ไธญไนžๆดป๏ผŒๆ‹–็ดฏๅฎถไบบ่ณบ้Œข้คŠ้†ซ๏ผŒไบบ็”Ÿๆ˜ฏๆฌก็ดšๅ“๏ผŒ้‚„ๆฏ’้บ็ฆๅฎณไธ‹ไธ€ไปฃใ€‚ 3ใ€่บซ้ซ”็š„่™›ๅผฑๅ’Œ็–พ็—…๏ผŒ้™คๅ…ˆๅคฉๆ†พ็ผบๅ’Œๆ„ๅค–ๅ‚ทๅฎณ๏ผŒ็ต•ๅคšๆ•ธ้ƒฝๆ˜ฏๆ—ฅๅธธ็”Ÿๆดป็ฟ’ๆ€งไธ่‰ฏ็ดฏ็ฉ่€Œๅผ•่ตท๏ผ›ๅไน‹๏ผ›ไบบ่ฆๅฅๅบทใ€่ฌ็—…ๆฏใ€้’ๆ˜ฅ็พŽ้บ—ใ€้•ทๅฃฝ๏ผŒๆœ€็ต‚ไนŸๅฟ…ๅ–ๆฑบๆ–ผ่‰ฏๅฅฝ็š„็”Ÿๆดป็ฟ’ๆ€งใ€‚ 4ใ€ๅ‹•็‰ฉ็—…ไบ†๏ผŒ้ ๅผทๅฅ่บซ้ซ”็š„่‡ช็™‚ๆฉŸ่ƒฝไพ†ไฟฎๅพฉ่‡ชๅทฑ็š„ๆฏ›็—…ใ€‚ไบบๅ’Œๅ‹•็‰ฉๆ˜ฏไธ€ๆจฃ๏ผŒไบบ้ซ”็‚บไบ†่ฆๅญ˜ๆดปไธ‹ๅŽป๏ผŒๆœฌ่บซ้ƒฝๅ…ทๆœ‰ไฟฎๅฅใ€็”Ÿ้•ทใ€ๆŠตๆŠ—ๅŠ›ใ€ๅ…็–ซๅŠ›ใ€ๅพฉๅŽŸ็ญ‰็ญ‰่‡ช็™‚็”Ÿ็†ๆฉŸ่ƒฝใ€‚ๅ› ๆญค๏ผ›็œŸๆญฃ่ƒฝ่ฎ“ๆˆ‘ๅ€‘่ฌ็—…ๆฏ๏ผŒ็พŽ้บ—ใ€็›Šๅฃฝใ€‚ไนŸๅชๆœ‰ๆˆ‘ๅ€‘ไบบ้ซ”ๆ‰€ๅ…ทๆœ‰็š„็”Ÿๅ‘ฝๅŠ›ใ€Œๅฅๅบทใ€ใ€‚ 5ใ€ไฝ ๆœ‰ๆฏ”ไป–ๅ€‘ๅฅฝๅ—Ž๏ผŸๅƒๅคไปŠไธญๅค–ๅธ็Ž‹๏ผˆ่”ฃ ็ถ“ๅœ‹ๅ…ˆ็”Ÿ๏ผ‰ใ€ๅฐ‡็›ธใ€ๆฌŠ่ฒดใ€ๅฏŒ่ฑชใ€ๅไบบ๏ผŒๆฌŠใ€้Œขใ€ไบบ๏ผŒไธ€ๆŠŠๆŠ“๏ผŒๅ้†ซใ€ไป™ๅƒใ€้ˆ่Šใ€็‰นๆ•ˆ่—ฅไฝ•ๆ›พ็ผบ๏ผŒ่ฟทไฟก้†ซ็™‚๏ผŒๅ‘ฝๅ็Ÿญใ€‚ 6ใ€ๅฅๅบท๏ผ่Šฑ้Œขๆ˜ฏ่ฆ่ฒท็ตๆžœ๏ผŒไธๆ˜ฏ่ฒทๆœๅ‹™๏ผŒ่€ฝ่ชคๆœ€ๅฅฝ็š„ๅพฉๅฅๆ™‚้–“ใ€‚ๆ–นๆณ•ๅฐ๏ผŒไบ‹ๅŠๅŠŸๅ€๏ผŒๆ–นๅ‘้Œฏ๏ผŒ็ŽฉๅฎŒไบกใ€‚่ง€ๅฟตๅ๏ผŒไบบไบ‘ไบฆไบ‘๏ผŒไบบๅ‹•ๅทฑๅ‹•๏ผŒไบบๅƒๅทฑๅƒ๏ผŒไธ็Ÿฅไฝ•็†๏ผŒไธ็Ÿฅไฝ•ๅ› ๏ผŒ้‚ฃๆ˜ฏๅพˆๅฑ้šช? 7ใ€ๅœจ็พไปŠไธ–็•Œๅ„ๅœ‹็š„้†ซ็™‚ๆ”ฟ็ญ–๏ผŒไธๆ•™ๅฐŽ็™พๆ€งๆญฃ็ขบๅฅๅบท็Ÿฅ่ญ˜๏ผŒๅปๆœฌๆœซๅ€’็ฝฎ็ธฑๅฎน้†ซ็”Ÿ๏ผŒไปฅ่—ฅ้คŠ้†ซ๏ผŒๅ‡่ก›ๆ•™ไน‹ๅ๏ผŒๅคง้‡ๅฎฃๅฐŽ่กŒ็™ฝ่‰ฒๆๅš‡๏ผŒ่‡ดๅคงๅคšๆ•ธ็š„ไบบๅœจ่บซๆœ‰ๅพฎๆ™ๆ™‚๏ผŒ็ฌฌไธ€ๅๆ‡‰ๅฐฑๆ˜ฏๅฐฑ่จบ๏ผŒ็„ถ้†ซ็”Ÿๅปๅชๆœƒไปฅ่—ฅ็‰ฉ๏ผŒๅฆ‚้กžๅ›บ้†‡ใ€ๆญข็—›่—ฅใ€ๆถˆ็‚Ž็‰‡ใ€ๆŠ—็”Ÿ็ด ใ€้ŽฎๅฎšๅŠ‘็จฎ็จฎไพ†ๅฃ“ๅˆถใ€็—ฒ็—บใ€้ฒๅปถๅ„็จฎ็—‡็‹€๏ผŒๆˆ–้–‹ๅˆ€ๆ‰‹่ก“็ ดๅฃž็งป้™ค๏ผŒๆ“พๅฃž่บซ้ซ”่‡ช็™‚ๅพฉๅฅ็š„ๆฉŸ่ƒฝใ€‚ 8ใ€ไบบไธๆ˜ฏๆฉŸๆขฐ๏ผŒไปŠๆ—ฅ็š„็ง‘ๆŠ€๏ผŒๆ˜‚่ฒด็š„้†ซ็™‚ๅ™จๆ๏ผŒ้†ซ่ก“็š„่ฎŠ่งฃ๏ผŒไปŠๆ˜ฏๆ˜Ž้ž็š„ๆผ”้‡‹๏ผŒ็ต•้ž็œŸ็†๏ผŒๅฐคๅ…ถๆ˜ฏๅŒ–ๅญธ่ฅฟ่—ฅ๏ผŒๅฆ‚ๅฎ‰้žไป–ๅ‘ฝใ€้กž้…ท้†‡็ญ‰็ญ‰ไธๅ‹ๅˆ—่ˆ‰๏ผŒไปŠๆ˜ฏไป™ไธนใ€็‰นๆ•ˆ่—ฅ๏ผŒๆ˜Žๅคฉๆ˜ฏ็ฎกๅˆถ็š„ๆฏ’่—ฅใ€‚ 9ใ€ๅฅๅบทใ€ๆฏ่ฌ็—…ใ€ๅปถๅนด็›Šๅฃฝ็š„ๅฟ…่จฃ๏ผ็”Ÿๅ‘ฝๆœ‰ใ€ๆœ‰ๅฝข็”Ÿ็†่ˆ‡็„กๅฝขๅฟƒ็†ๅŠๅนณๅธธ้คŠ็”Ÿๅ„ไฝ”1/3ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€่จ˜ไฝ๏ผ่บซ้ซ”ๆ˜ฏๆ•ด้ซ”ๅ…จ้ขๆ€ง๏ผŒๅ‹ฟ็ฎกๆ‚จ่ฆๅšไปปไฝ•ไธญใ€่ฅฟ้†ซ็™‚ใ€ๆˆ–ๅƒใ€ๆ‰“้คŠ่บซ้ฃŸ้ฃฒใ€ไฟๅฅ็‰นๆ•ˆ่—ฅ๏ผŒๆˆ–้‡็ธใ€็ถ“็ตกใ€ๆ‹”ๆ“ขใ€ๆญฃ้ชจใ€ๆŽจๆ‹ฟใ€ๆŒ‰ๆ‘ฉใ€็”Ÿ็‰ฉใ€็‰ฉ็†ใ€่‡ช็„ถใ€้ †ๅ‹ขใ€่ƒฝ้‡ใ€้›ป็ฃใ€ๆฐฃๅŠŸ็จฎ็จฎ็™‚ๆณ•๏ผŒๆˆ–้‹ๅ‹•ใ€ๅญธ็‘œ็ˆใ€็ทดๅŠŸ้คŠ็”Ÿ๏ผŒๆˆ–่ฒทๅฅๅบทใ€้†ซ็™‚ๅ™จๆ๏ผŒ่บซ้ซ”ๆ˜ฏๆ•ด้ซ”๏ผŒๆœ‰ๆœ‰ๅฝข่ˆ‡็„กๅฝข๏ผŒๆœ‰็”Ÿ็†่ˆ‡ๅฟƒ็†๏ผŒๆœ‰้ˆๆ€งใ€ๆœ‰ๆƒ…็ท’็š„็”Ÿ็‰ฉ๏ผŒๅฅๅบทไธ€ๅฎš่ฆๅ…ญ้ …ๅ…ฑ่ชฟๅ–„๏ผš ไธ€๏ผš็ต•ๅฐไปฅๆญฃๅฅ่„Šใ€้ ธๆคŽ้ชจ๏ผˆไบบ้ซ”็š„ๅคงๆจ‘ๆŸฑ๏ผ‰๏ผŒ้ชจๆญฃ็‚บไธปใ€‚ ๆ นๆ“š๏ผšๅคไปŠไธญๅค–้†ซๅญธ๏ผŒไบบ้กž็š„ๅฅๅบทๆ˜ฏๅปบ็ฏ‰ๅœจๆญฃๅฅ่„Š้ ธๆคŽ้ชจไธŠ๏ผŒ่„Š้ ธๆคŽ้ชจๆœ‰็•ฐๆ™๏ผŒ็—…ๆ˜ฏๆฒปไธๅฎŒใ€‚ ๆ นๆ“š๏ผšไธญ้†ซๆญท่ญ‰๏ผšๅ‰็—…ๅพŒ็—›๏ผŒๅ‰็—…ๅพŒๆฒปใ€‚ๅพŒๆฒป=ๆญฃๅฅ่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจใ€‚ไธญ้†ซใ€ไธŠ็—…ไธ‹ๆฒป๏ผŒไธ‹็—…ไธŠๆฒป๏ผŒๅทฆ็—…ๅณๆฒป๏ผŒๅณ็—…ๅทฆๆฒป๏ผŒๅ‰็—…ๅพŒ็—›๏ผŒๅ‰็—…ๅพŒๆฒป=่ฅฟ้†ซใ€่‡ชๅพ‹็ฅž็ถ“๏ผˆไนŸ็จฑ่‡ชไธป็ฅž็ถ“๏ผ‰ๅˆ†็‚บใ€Œไบคๆ„Ÿ็ฅž็ถ“ใ€่ˆ‡ใ€Œๅ‰ฏไบคๆ„Ÿ็ฅž็ถ“ใ€๏ผŒๅ…ฉ่€…ไบ’็›ธๆ‹ฎๆŠ—ไปฅๅนณ่กกใ€ๅ”่ชฟๆˆ‘ๅ€‘็š„ๅ™จๅฎ˜้‹ไฝœใ€‚ ๆ นๆ“š๏ผš้ปƒๅธๅ…ง็ถ“ไบ‘๏ผ›ๅ‰็—…ๅพŒ็—›๏ผŒๅ‰็—…ๅพŒๆฒปใ€‚ๅพŒๆฒป=ๆญฃๅฅ่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจใ€‚ ๆ นๆ“š๏ผš้‡็ธ็ฉด้“ๅญธใ€‚ใ€”้‡่ฆ็ฉด้“้ƒฝๅœจ่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจไธŠใ€• ๆ นๆ“š๏ผš่ฅฟ้†ซไธญๆจž็ฅž็ถ“๏ผŒ่„ŠๆคŽ็ฅž็ถ“ๅˆ†ไฝˆ็—…่ฎŠๅญธ่ชช๏ผŒๆฏไธ€็ฏ€่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจ้ƒฝ้™„ๆœ‰ๅ‰้ขไธ€ๅ€‹ๅ…ง่‡Ÿ็š„็ฅž็ถ“๏ผŒ้‚ฃไธ€็ฏ€่„ŠๆคŽ้ชจๆœ‰็—…่ฎŠ๏ผŒๅ‰้ข้‚ฃไธ€ๅ…ง่‡Ÿๅฟ…ๆœ‰็–พ็—‡ใ€‚ ไบŒ๏ผšไฝ†ไปฅ้Ž–ๅฅใ€ๅนณ่กก้ชจ็›†่…”็‚บๆœ€้‡่ฆใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€้ชจ็›†่…”ๆœ‰ๅฆ‚ไบบ้ซ”็š„ๅœฐๅŸบ๏ผŒๆœ‰ๅฆ‚่บซ้ซ”็š„ๆกŒ้ข๏ผŒ้ชจ็›†่…”ๅฆ‚ๆญชไบ†ใ€้ฌ†ๅผ›ไบ†๏ผŒไธๅนณ่กก็ฉฉๅฅ๏ผŒ็ฝฎๆŸฑๅœจไธŠ้ข็š„่„Šใ€้ ธๆคŽ้ชจๅฟ…ๆœƒๆœ‰็•ฐๆ™๏ผŒไธๆญฃๅฅ๏ผŒ่ฌ็—…็”Ÿใ€‚ ไธ‰๏ผš่ผ”ไปฅๆ‹‰่…ฟใ€Œ่ถณๅคช้™ฝ่†€่ƒฑ็ญ‹ใ€๏ผŒ่ˆ’ๅฑ•็ญ‹ๆŸ”๏ผŒ้˜ฒ้…ธ็—›ใ€ๆŠฝ็ญ‹ใ€้ชจ่ณช็–้ฌ†๏ผŒ็ทฉ่€ๅŒ–่Ž็ธฎใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€้ชจ้ชผๆ‰ฟๅ—ใ€Œ็ญ‹ใ€็š„็‰ฝๅผ•๏ผŒๅฝˆๆ‹‰๏ผŒ็ธฎๆ”พใ€ๅŠ›้‡ไฝฟ็„ถๆ‡‰็”จ๏ผŒ็ญ‹ๅœจๆœ‰ๅฝˆๆ€ง๏ผŒไธๅœจ้ฌ†ๅฑ•ใ€‚ไบบ็š„็ญ‹ๅฐฑๅƒ๏ผˆๆฉก็šฎ็ญ‹๏ผ‰๏ผŒๆ‹‰ๅฑ•ๅคช้Žใ€ๅคชๅฟซใ€ๅคช้ฌ†๏ผŒไธๆ˜ฏๆ–ทๆŽ‰๏ผŒๅฐฑๆ˜ฏ็–ฒไน๏ผŒ็–ฒไน็ผบๅฝˆๆ€ง๏ผŒ่ฅฟ้†ซๅซใ€Œ้ŸŒๅธถ้ฌ†ๆ‡ˆใ€๏ผŒๅ่บซๆใ€‚็ญ‹้•ทไธ€ๅฏธใ€ๅฃฝๅปถๅๅนด๏ผŒ็ต•ๅฐๆ˜ฏ้Œฏ่ชคใ€‚ ๅ››๏ผšๆฌกไปฅๅŠฉ่…ธ่ƒƒๆšข้ †๏ผŒๆฏๅคฉๅธๆ”ถ้คŠไปฝๆญฃๅธธๆป‹้คŠ่บซ้ซ”๏ผŒๅธธไฟๅบทๅฅใ€‚ใ€่…ธ่ƒƒๆšข้ †๏ผŒ็™พ็—…ๅฅฝไธ€ๅŠใ€‘ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€่…ธ่ƒƒไธๅฅฝ๏ผŒๅƒๅ†ๅฅฝ็š„ไป™ๅƒใ€้ฃŸ้ฃฒไนŸๆ˜ฏๆตช่ฒปใ€‚้ฃŸ้ฃฒ่‹ฅๆฒ’้ฉไบˆๆถˆๅŒ–๏ผŒ็ดฏ็ฉ้ซ”ๅ…งๅ่ฎŠๆˆๆฏ’็ด ๆฏ’ๅฎณ่บซไฝ“ใ€‚ ไบ”๏ผš็ˆพไปฅไฟƒๆฐฃ่ก€ไปฅๆต๏ผŒๆฐฃไฟƒ่ก€่กŒ๏ผŒ่ก€ๅผ•ๆฐฃ้‹๏ผŒไปฃ่ฌๅพช็’ฐ๏ผŒ็„ก็—…็—›ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅ‡่„Šใ€้ ธๆคŽๆœ‰็•ฐๆ™๏ผŒไฝฟ็„ถ่บซ้ซ”ๆ‰€ๆœ‰ๅพช็’ฐๆฉŸ่ƒฝ้ƒฝๅฟ…ๆœ‰ๆ่€—๏ผŒไธ่ƒฝๆšข้ †้‹ๆ•ˆใ€‚่‹ฅๆœ‰ไบบ่ชช๏ผšๅƒใ€ๆ‰“ไป€้บผไฟๅฅ้คŠ็”Ÿใ€็‰นๆ•ˆ่—ฅ็จฎ็จฎ่ƒฝๆฒป็—…๏ผŒๅŠฉไฝ ๆฐฃ่ก€ๅพช็’ฐใ€่ฃœ้ˆฃใ€ไปฃ่ฌใ€ๆŽ’ๆฏ’ใ€็พŽ้บ—ใ€็›Šๅฃฝ็ญ‰็ญ‰๏ผŒ้‚ฃๆ‡‰่ฉฒๆ˜ฏ่ฆ่ชคไฝ ๏ผŒๅฎณไฝ ๏ผŒ้จ™ไฝ ็š„้Œขๅง๏ผ ๅ…ญ๏ผšไปฅๅŠๅฟƒ็†ๅปบ่จญ๏ผŒใ€Ž็ฏ‰ๅฟƒๅปŸใ€๏ผŒ็ฒพ็ฅžๅฃ“ๅŠ›๏ผŒๆƒ…็ท’็š„่ˆ’้คŠ่ˆ‡ๆŽงๅ–„ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ไบ‚๏ผšๆˆไบ‹ไธ่ถณ๏ผŒๆ•—ไบ‹ๆœ‰้ค˜ใ€‚ไบบๅฟƒไบ‚ไบ†ใ€Œ็—…ไบ†ใ€๏ผๆƒ…็ท’็•ฐๅธธ็š„ๆณขๅ‹•๏ผŒๅฐๅค–๏ผšๅฏไปฅๅฃžไบ‹๏ผŒๅฐๅ…ง๏ผšๅฐŽ่‡ด็”Ÿ็†็”ŸๅŒ–็’ฐๅขƒ็”ข็”Ÿ้€†ๅธธ็š„่ฎŠๅŒ–๏ผŒๅฟ…ๆœƒๆ“พไบ‚่ก€ๆฐฃ๏ผŒ่‡Ÿ่…‘ๆญฃๅธธ้‹ๅŒ–ๆšข้ †๏ผŒ่ฌ็—…็”Ÿใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅคงๅฎถ้ƒฝ็Ÿฅ้“๏ผŒ้†ซ็—…ๅ…ˆ้†ซๅฟƒ๏ผŒไบบๅœจ็”Ÿ็—…ๆœ€ๅฟŒ่ซฑๆ˜ฏ่ฒ ้ขๆƒ…็ท’ๅŠๅ—”ๆšๅฟƒ่ตท๏ผŒ้€™ๅ€‹ๆ™‚ๅ€™ไธ€ๅฎš่ฆ่ฎ“ๅ…ถๅฟƒๅฎ‰่ˆ’้ †ใ€‚็•ข็ซŸ๏ผŒไปปไฝ•ไธ€ๅ ด็—…๏ผŒ้ƒฝๆœƒ่ฎ“ไบบไบ‚ไบ†้™ฃ่…ณใ€‚ๆœ‰้Ž็—…้Ž๏ผŒๆ–น็Ÿฅ็—…ไบบๅฟƒ็—…ไบบๆ†‚๏ผŒๆƒ…็ท’ไธŠ็š„ๆ“”ๆ†‚ใ€ๆๆ‡ผใ€ๆ‚ฒ้ณดใ€ๆฒฎๅ–ช็จฎ็จฎ่ฒ ้ขๆณขๅ‹•๏ผŒๅชๆœƒๆ—ไบ‚่‡Ÿ่…‘ใ€็ฅž็ถ“ใ€ๆฐฃ่ก€ใ€ๅ…งๅˆ†ๆณŒใ€ๆท‹ๅทด่…บใ€ๆถˆๅŒ–็ณป็ตฑใ€่…ŽไธŠ่…บ็ด ็จฎ็จฎ็”Ÿ็†็”ŸๅŒ–ๆฉŸ่ƒฝ๏ผŒ็”ข็”Ÿ้€†ๅธธ็š„่ฎŠๅŒ–๏ผŒ่ฎ“่บซ้ซ”ๆ›ดๅŠ ๆƒกๅŒ–ใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅไน‹๏ผšๅฟƒ้ˆไธŠๆœ‰ไบ†ๅฏ„่จ—๏ผŒๆœ‰ๅธŒๆœ›ใ€็Ÿฅๆ‰€ๅฅฎ๏ผŒๆœ‰ๅ …ๅผท็š„ๆ„ๅฟ—๏ผŒๆ„ๅฟ—ๆ˜ฏไธ€็จฎ็”ฑๅฟƒ็†็”ข็”Ÿ็š„่ƒฝๆบใ€ๆ˜ฏ่บซๅฟƒๆœ€ๅคง็š„ๅ‹•ๅŠ›๏ผŒ็ต•ๅฐๆฏ”ๅƒ่—ฅๆ›ด้‡่ฆ๏ผŒ็ต•ๅฐๆ˜ฏๆฒป็—…ๆœ€ๅฅฝ็š„ไป™ๅƒ็‰นๆ•ˆ่—ฅ๏ผŒไนŸๆ˜ฏ็”Ÿๅ‘ฝๅปถ็บŒ็š„้‡่ƒฝใ€‚ ๏ผ†ใ€ๅฎŒๅ…จ้ ่‡ชๅทฑ๏ผŒ็ซ™ๅœจๅ‰้ซ˜ใ€Œไธ€็”Ÿๅฅ‡ๅฑ๏ผˆ่นŸ๏ผ‰ใ€ไธŠ้ข๏ผŒ็…งๆˆ‘ๆ•™็š„่‡ชๅทฑๅš้ปž็ฐกๅ–ฎๅ‹•ไฝœ๏ผŒๅ‡ไธๅนธๆ‚ฃๆœ‰้†ซ็”Ÿๆ‰€็จฑ็ด„ๅ…ซๆˆ็จฎ็จฎๅพŒๅคฉๆ€งไปปไฝ•็–พ็—…๏ผšๅฆ‚ๆŠฝ็ญ‹ใ€ไบ”ๅ่‚ฉ๏ผŒ่†้—œ็ฏ€ๆฏ›็—…๏ผŒ้ชจ่ณช็–้ฌ†๏ผŒ่„Šใ€้ ธๆคŽๅด็ฃ๏ผŒๆป‘่„ซใ€ๆคŽ้–“็›คๅ‡ธๅ‡บ๏ผŒ่ถณๅบ•็ญ‹่†œ็‚Ž๏ผŒๅƒต็›ดๆ€ง่„ŠๆคŽ็‚Ž็ญ‰้ชจ้ชผ็•ฐๆ™๏ผŒๅŠ่ƒƒๆฝฐ็˜๏ผŒ่ƒƒ้ฃŸ้“้€†ๆต๏ผŒๆผฒๆฐฃ๏ผŒๆ‹‰่‚šๅญใ€็”ทๅฃซๆ”่ญท่…บ๏ผŒๅฅณๅฃซๅฐฟๅคฑ็ฆ๏ผŒๅญๅฎ˜ไธ‹ๅž‚๏ผŒ็ณ–ๅฐฟ็—…๏ผŒ้ซ˜่ก€ๅฃ“ใ€้ซ˜่„‚่‚ช็ญ‰็ญ‰๏ผŒไธ€ๆฌก๏ฝž 30ๅคฉๅ…งๆˆ–ๆœƒ่ฎ“ๆ‚จๆœ‰ๆ„ๆƒณไธๅˆฐ็š„ๅฅๅบทๅฅ‡่นŸๆ„Ÿๆ‡‰๏ผŒๆฒ’ๆœ‰ไปปไฝ•ๅพŒ้บ็—‡ๅ‰ฏไฝœ็”จใ€‚ๅ“ฆ๏ผๅฎƒๆœ‰ไธ€ๅ€‹ๅพŒ้บ็—‡๏ผŒๅฎขไบบ่ฌ›็š„๏ผˆๆดปๅˆฐ120ๆญฒ๏ผ‰ใ€‚ ไฝฟ็”จ่ฆ‹่ญ‰่€…ๆœ‰๏ผš 1ใ€ๅคšๆฌกๅœจๅŒ—ไบฌใ€ไธŠๆตทใ€ๆ—ฅๆœฌใ€ๅฐๅŒ—็ญ‰ๅฅๅบท้†ซ็™‚ๅฑ•ๅƒๅฑ•ใ€‚ 2ใ€ๆ›พ่ทŸๅฎ‹ๆฅš็‘œๅƒ้ธ้Žๅ‰ฏ็ธฝ็ตฑ ๆž—็‘ž้›„้†ซๅญธๅšๅฃซ๏ผŒไป–็ถ“ไป‹็ดนไพ†่ฒทไธ€้›™ใ€Œไป–ๆœ‰่ทŸๆˆ‘่ชชไป–็š„ๅๅญๅพˆๅฅฝ็”จใ€๏ผŒ็ด„ไธ€ๆ˜ŸๆœŸๅพŒๆœ‰ไฝ่‡ช็จฑๆ˜ฏไป–ๅงชๅญ็š„ไบบๅธถไป–ๅคชๅคชๅ’Œๅฅณๅ…’ๅˆฐๆˆ‘ๅบ—่ฃ๏ผŒ่ชชไป–ๅฅณๅ…’่บซ้ซ”ๆœ‰็•ฐๆ™๏ผŒๅŽป่ซ‹ๆ•™ไป–ๆ€Ž้บผ่ชฟๅ–„๏ผŒๆž—็‘ž้›„ ้†ซๅญธๅšๅฃซๅฐไป–่ชช๏ผŒๆ‰พๆˆ‘ๅฐฑๅฐใ€‚ 3๏ผšๅฐˆ้–€็ฎก็†้†ซ้™ขใ€้†ซ็”Ÿๅฅไฟ็ธฝๅฑ€ๅ‰็•ถๅ”็†ๅพŒ่ชฟๅ—้ƒจๅฅไฟๅฑ€ๅ‡็•ถ็ต„้•ท๏ผŒๅ› ๆ‹‰่‚šๅญๆ€Ž้บผ้†ซ้ƒฝ้†ซไธๅฅฝ๏ผŒๅๅคšๅนดๅ‰ๅฅฝๅฅ‡ๅœจๅŒ—ๆŠ•่ฒทไธ€้›™็ตๆžœๅฐฑๆŠŠๅฎƒ็ตฆ่ชฟๅ–„๏ผŒ็ด„ไธ€ๆ˜ŸๆœŸๅพŒไนŸ้™ธ้™ธ็บŒ็บŒไป‹็ดนไป–ๅ€‘ๅŒไบ‹ๆˆ–ๅ…งๆ”ฟ้ƒจๅฎ˜ๅ“กไพ†่ฒทๅˆฐ็พๅœจๆ‡‰ๆœ‰6๏ฝž7็™พ้›™ใ€‚ 4๏ผšๅ—้ƒจๅ‰็ซ‹ๆณ•ๅง”ๅ“กๅคชๅคชๅŠๅฅน็š„ๅจ˜ๅฎถใ€‚ 5๏ผšไนŸๆœ‰ๆ–ฐๅŠ ็Žปๅฐˆ้–€้†ซๆฒป็”ทๆ€งๆ”่ญท่…บ่‚ฅๅคง็š„้†ซ็”Ÿ๏ผŒ่‡ชๅทฑ็š„ๆ”่ญท่…บ่‚ฅๅคงๅ•้กŒ้ƒฝไพ†ๆ‰พๆˆ‘ใ€‚ 6๏ผšๆฆฎ็ธฝใ€ๅ’Œๅนณใ€้™ฝๆ˜Žโ€ฆโ€ฆ..้‚„ๆœ‰็พŽๅœ‹๏ผŒๆ—ฅๆœฌ๏ผŒๅฐๅฐผ๏ผŒๆณฐๅœ‹ใ€ๆ–ฐๅŠ ๅกใ€้ฆฌไพ†่ฅฟไบžใ€ๅŠ ๆ‹ฟๅคง็ญ‰็ญ‰ไธญ้†ซๅพˆๅคš้†ซ็”Ÿ่ญทๅฃซไนŸ้ƒฝๆœ‰่ฒท่‡ชๅทฑ็”จ๏ผŒไธๅ‹ไพ‹่ˆ‰ใ€‚ ๅšๅ–„ไบ‹๏ผŒๆ•‘ไบบๅ‘ฝ๏ผŒ็ฉๅŠŸๅพท๏ผŒ่ฆๅฟซ๏ผๅœจ้‚„ๆฒ’ๆœ‰็–ซ่‹—๏ผŒๆฒ’ๆœ‰็‰นๆ•ˆ่—ฅไธ‹๏ผŒ่ซ‹็”จๆ‚จๆ…ˆๅ–„ๅฟƒ๏ผŒๅ€Ÿๆ‚จ็š„ๅๆฐฃ๏ผŒๅŠฉไธ€ๆŠŠ๏ผŒๅ†ๅฐ‡้€™ไปฝ่ณ‡่จŠ่ฝ‰ๅฏ„ไธ€ๆฌกๆˆ–ๅˆ†ไบซใ€‚้€™ๆ˜ฏไธ€ไปฝๅทฒๅฏ„็ตฆ่ฏๅˆๅœ‹ใ€ๅคง้™ธใ€ๆญใ€็พŽใ€ๆ—ฅใ€ๅฐๅบฆ๏ผˆๅŒ…ๅซๅœ‹ๅ…ง๏ผ‰็ญ‰ๅ„ๅœ‹ๅ…ƒ้ฆ–่ˆ‡ๅ…ฌ่ก›้ƒจ้–€ๆˆ–ๆฌŠๅจไบบๅฃซ๏ผŒๅŠๅฏŒ่ฑชใ€ๅไบบใ€ๅคงไผๆฅญCEOใ€ๅช’้ซ”ใ€‚ ๆ˜ฏ็™ผๆ˜Žไบบใ€ๆ‡‰ไนŸๆ˜ฏๅ‚ฒ่ฆ–ไธญๅค–ๅฐๅฅๅบท้ ่‡ชๅทฑๆœ€ๆœ‰ๅฟƒๅพ—็š„ๅฅๅบท้”ไบบ๏ผŒYouTobu่ซ‹่ผธๅ…ฅใ€Žๆž—ๅŸน้•ทใ€๏ผŒๆˆ–https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dO2DuNSJ1A0&t=13sใ€Œๅ…ซๅˆ†20็ง’ๆ”น่ฎŠไฝ ็š„ไธ€็”Ÿใ€ๆœ‰ๅๅคšๅนดไพ†้‚„ๆฒ’ๆœ‰ไบบ่ชชๆˆ‘้Œฏ๏ผŒๆ‡‰ๆœƒ่ฎ“ๆ‚จ็จฑ่จฑๅฅๅบทใ€ๆฏ่ฌ็—…ใ€็พŽ้บ—ใ€็›Šๅฃฝ็š„่ซ–่ญ‰ๅˆ†ๆž่ฌ›่งฃใ€‚ E-mail๏ผš[email protected] ่กŒๅ‹•ใ€886-935791113 ๆœ€ๅฅฝ็š„็ฅ็ฆ ๅฐ็ฃ ๆž—ๅŸน้•ท ๅ…ˆ็”Ÿ