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Yellow fever is transmitted by a type of mosquito that is active only during the day.
By Sandra Janet Birungi

Posted Monday, April 18 2016 at 01:00

In Summary

Uganda has again been hit by the deadly yellow fever, health officials have confirmed. Ten people have been confirmed dead in Masaka District and 13 more are suspected to be sick.

Africa has for a long time fought an unending war with mosquitoes. Commonly known to cause the leading cause of death in Uganda, malaria, mosquitoes also transmit zika virus which makes women deliver children with smaller heads (microcephaly) and cause yellow fever in humans and monkeys.
Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes infected with the virus. Transmission is carried from monkeys to humans and between fellow humans.

Status of Uganda
According to Dr Julius Lutwama, the head of arbovirology emerging and re-emerging viral infections at the Uganda Virus Research Institute, Uganda is one of the countries living in the yellow fever belt although it is rated at medium risk.
“We have a favourable environment and the mosquitoes that transmit the virus found in forests. However, these mosquitoes do not normally bite human beings so there are occasional outbreaks in the country despite having a high percentage of the population not immunised” Dr Lutwama explains.
Sources say ministry of Health is organising a mass vaccination campaign against yellow fever in Masaka region.

According to Centre for Disease Prevention, mosquitoes acquire the virus by feeding on infected primates (human or non-human) and then can transmit the virus to other primates.
People infected with yellow fever virus are infectious to mosquitoes (referred to as being “viremic”) shortly before the onset of fever and up to five days after onset.
Yellow fever virus has three transmission cycles: jungle (sylvatic), inter­mediate (savannah), and urban.
CDC explains that jungle (sylvatic) cycle involves transmission of the virus between non-human primates (such as monkeys) and mosquito species found in the forest canopy. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes from monkeys to humans when humans are visiting or working in the jungle.
The savannah cycle predominantly in Africa involves transmission of virus from mosquitoes to humans living or working in jungle border areas. In this cycle, the virus can be transmitted from monkey to human or from human to human via mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti.

Dr Lutwama says treatment of yellow fever is asymptomatic which means it is treated depending on the symptoms.
“In case a person has fever, paracentamol or panadol can be administered to help, if renal problems occur, the necessary steps should be offered,” Dr Lutwama explains.
He adds that if a patient survives to the 12th day of infection, there is a likelihood he or she will survive.
“Not everyone who gets the fever dies; 20 to 40 per cent of those who get infected die,” he says.
CDC, however, warns of administering certain medicines such as aspirin, ibrufen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which may increase the risk of bleeding.

Signs and symptoms
Explaining the disease, Dr Stuart Musisi the district health officer Masaka, says it is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes which bites people during the day. The mosquitoes are usually found in jungles; the affected sub-counties are surrounded by thick forests along Lake Victoria shores.
“People who become ill usually present with rapid onset of fever that does not respond to malaria treatment. One can also develop symptoms like nausea, vomiting, kidney failure, jaundice and bleeding,” Dr Musisi says.
WHO adds that the yellow fever virus hatches in the body between three and six days before translating into infection. At the start of the infection, the person will get fever, muscle pain centered on the back, headache, shivers, loss of appetite and nausea. However, 15 per cent of the infected later on present with severe symptoms a day after the first symptoms disappear.

“High fever returns and several body systems are affected. The patient rapidly develops jaundice and complains of abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach. Once this happens, blood appears in the vomit and faeces. Kidney function deteriorates,” WHO says.
Dr Lutwama adds that it takes four days for the symptoms to start appearing although he says it depends on different people, the climate and the amount of virus in the body. He adds yellowing of the eyes, tongue and hands as other signs of the disease. This happens due to the infection on the liver where the virus attacks; which is in advanced stages of the fever.

The patient can also present bloodshot eyes, bleeding may occur in the nose, the faeces and the urine. He also cites renal symptoms such as failure to pass urine as another probable symptom. He continues that when the bleeding and renal or kidney related symptoms start, there is a high possibility the patient will die.
WHO say it is hard to identify the fever in its early stages as it can easily be confused with severe malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever and other fevers although blood tests can detect the yellow fever antibodies produced in response to the infection.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), says infected people should be protected from mosquitoes since they can cause re-transmission of the disease from person to person for at least five days.

Previous attacks

This, however, is not the first fever outbreak recorded in the country. Dr Lutwama lists outbreaks in 1939 and 1940 which took place in Bundibugyo District although the magnitude was not recorded. He also cites individual case recordings in 1952, 1959, 1964 and 1971; 158 people were also reported to be infected with the fever in 2010-2011. He adds that in 1970-1971, an outbreak took place in monkeys in the Zika forest.
“Currently, the outbreak has been contained although investigations are still taking place to determine the origin of the fever. We have found out that Buwunga sub-County where the first case was recorded holds the vectors for transmission but we are still conducting more research,” Dr Lutwama shares.


Due to the absence of a single form of treatment, vaccination is the best way to prevent infection of yellow fever, Dr Lutwama says. However, he states that Uganda at the moment has very few vaccination centres with most of them being found in private clinics.
WHO advises vaccination coverage to reach at least 60 per cent of the populations at risk for effectiveness or prevention in addition to routine infant immunization, one-time mass campaigns to increase vaccination coverage and for travelers to yellow fever endemic areas.
In 2010, Ministry of Health planned to vaccinate 2.5 million people in the northern region following a yellow fever outbreak that killed 45 people and 183 afflicted. The targeted districts were Abim, Agago, Kitgum, Lamwoo and Pader. The 2010 outbreak was the first in 40 years but was later on followed by three confirmed cases in 2011.

Dr Lutwama says currently, Ministry if Health is in the process of getting the vaccine which is in short supply because of the more urgent outbreaks in Angola and Congo.
“We usually vaccinate depending on the availability of the vaccine and the outbreaks. If we procure the vaccines this year, we will only vaccinate the surrounding areas of Buwongo where cases have been reported,” Dr Lutwama explains.
Once vaccination occurs, WHO says 90 per cent of those vaccinated will get protection within 10 days and 99 per cent within 30 days. One shot of the vaccine offers life-long protection. Experts add that serious side effects are rare.
Even though WHO offers mosquito prevention as a probable method of prevention, Dr Lutwama says it is unlikely to prevent mosquito bites or reduce the number of mosquitoes.

“It is not a sure deal to prevent mosquito bites or have complete mosquito control. All these depend on the environment but you cannot be so sure. So the only sure way to protect yourself is through vaccination.”
WHO cites epidemic preparedness and response saying countries susceptible to outbreaks or infections should be ready to carry out emergency vaccination campaigns. In addition to this, there is need to have laboratories which can carry out confirmatory tests and thorough investigations. Currently, all tests are carried out by the Uganda Virus Research Institute.
However, it adds that the number of registered cases have been decreasing since 2006 after the launch of the Yellow Fever Initiative.

According to World Health Organisation (WHO), 800 million people living in 44 countries in Africa and Central and South America are prone to the fever. There are between 84,000 and 170, 000 cases recorded every year and up to 60 000 related deaths.
Uganda is one of the countries recording new cases. Outbreaks have been confirmed in Angola where hundreds have been reported dead and Democratic Republic of Congo where 21 deaths have so far occurred. In Uganda, more than 10 cases have been confirmed in Masaka district, 10 dead and 13 suspected cases showing signs of the fever.
According to Dr Stuart Musisi, the Masaka district health officer, the fever has spread to more sub-counties within the district surrounding Buwunga Sub-county where the first cases were recorded.


Hepatitis A outbreak reported in Mombasa............

Posted by Jambo on Tuesday, March 29, 2016 · Leave a Comment
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The County has announced an outbreak of Hepatitis A in Mombasa.

County health executive Abdi Mohammed Ibrahim said 21 cases have so far been reported in several private hospitals within the city.

He said the outbreak could be linked to residents drinking contaminated water.

“Because of the high temperatures, people are taking a lot of water and maybe from untreated sources,” he says.

Speaking in Mombasa on Tuesday, Ibrahim said his ministry has been in touch with the water department in the county through the Mombasa Water Services and Coast Water Company, who are now going to treat piped water sources.

The county government will also chlorinate boreholes and wells within the county, he added.

“That has already started and is ongoing from last week. We were surveying across the county to ensure that our water sources are treated.”

Causes of Hepatitis A

The most common cause of hepatitis A, according to NHS journal, is eating food contaminated by the stools of an infected person as a result of poor personal hygiene.

One may get hepatitis A after eating food prepared by an infected person who has not washed their hands properly.

It is also possible to become infected by drinking contaminated water.

This includes using ice cubes made from contaminated water and eating raw fruit or vegetables washed in contaminated water.

An outbreak occurs in areas that have high levels of poverty, are overcrowded or have limited access to sanitation and clean water.

Happy, Healthy & Blessed Easter to you all.................

Happy, Healthy & Blessed Easter to you all.................


Do you have a home Administrator, who takes care of your family/children, when you are away to work?

Has he/she undergone a thorough health check-up to ascertain his/her ability to run your home, when you are away?

Lubowa Medical Centre has come up with a suitable health check-up package that can solve this problem, thus kindly lead your home administrator (s) down the clinic for a thorough health check up:


Blood pressure
Respiratory rate
Eye examination (Visual acuity & visual field)
Sub Total 50,000.00


FBC - 14,200.00
Urinalysis - 8,000.00
TPHA/VDRL - 10,000.00
Stool (Parasite) - 6,900.00
HIV-1/2 RAPID ONLY- (1st line)* 11,000.00
WIDAL TEST* - 12,000.00
Sub Total - 81,000.00

Grand Total - 131,000.00

A Wellness certificate will be awarded/given to your home administrator, to prove that he/she is fit for the job.

Call our main line: 0392175780 for more Inquiries..

Always at your service...


Are you Battling with the following illnesses:

1. Diabetes
2. Hypertension
3. Dyslipediima
4. Chronic Respiratory Diseases
5. Neurological Problems (Stroke, Parkinson's , Dementia)
6 .Rheumatology
7.Cardiovascular Diseases
8. Renal Diseases
9. Arthritis &
10. HIV
11. Annual Wellness Check up

Our Family Medicine Specialist at Lubowa Medical Center is ready/waiting for you; Every Fridays from 2:00pm- 8:00pm.

Call 0392175780 to make an Appointment........................

"Your Health is our Concern......."

Happy, Healthy, and Blessed Women's day...............

Happy, Healthy, and Blessed Women's day...............

Lubowa Medical Centre:The only Vaccination Centre with all types of Vaccinations: Slope down to the centre for your shot...
International Medical Group

Lubowa Medical Centre:

The only Vaccination Centre with all types of Vaccinations: Slope down to the centre for your shot of:

1. Hepatitis B shots ( taken in 3 intervals/visits)
2. Yellow Fever shot
3. Typhoid Vaccine
4. Pneumoccocal Vaccine
5. MMR Vaccine
6. Rota Virus Vaccine.

And many more of them. Just slope down Lubowa Medical Centre for your shot. Remember, "Prevention is better than Cure"............


Why Are Wellness Check-Ups Important for Children?

Wellness checks, sometimes referred to as well-child care, are important for the overall health of your child because they allow you, your child, and your pediatrician to discuss important concerns and questions. Our board-certified pediatricians at AGC Pediatrics recommend that parents schedule at least an annual wellness check; however, parents may schedule well-child check-ups whenever any important healthcare questions or concerns arise.

Pediatric wellness checks allow parents and doctors to create a team approach to healthcare, which promotes the developmental, emotional and physical health of the child, and allows pediatricians to learn more about each individual child. Our board-certified team of pediatricians at AGC Pediatrics in Cartersville and Calhoun, Georgia offer you and your child a comfortable, friendly, faith-based pediatric healthcare.
What is a Wellness Check at AGC Pediatrics?
Wellness checks at AGC Pediatrics in North Georgia are the perfect opportunity for parents to discuss any concerns or ask any questions about their child’s health and wellness. Additionally, during a well-child check-up, parents and children may expect:

· Recording of height & weight
· Blood pressure & body temperature check
· Test of hearing and vision
· Urine samples
· Complete physical exam
· Immunization booster shots

Following the doctor’s examination, our board-certified pediatricians encourage parents and children to ask any questions. We recommend that parents write out their questions and concerns to ensure the complete health of the child. Some of these questions may be as basic as sports safety or as complex as discussing developmental issues, such as ADHD.

Our pediatricians also provide valuable safety information for upcoming seasons and events.
Wellness Checks at AGC Pediatrics
At AGC Pediatrics in Calhoun and Cartersville, Georgia, we believe in providing the highest quality healthcare for pediatric patients up to age 21. Our faith-based practice offers a friendly, comfortable environment to encourage your child’s healthy growth and development.

Cholera Outbreak: Lets take Caution!!!!!!!

Cholera Outbreak: Lets take Caution!!!!!!!



Why You Need Medical Insurance...................

We tend to forget the simple things that matter a lot in our lives, like Medical Insurance. Once in a while you fall sick and start wishing you had one because of the bill you have to pay in hospital.

The process of medical insurance has been evolved to safeguard the interest of people from uncertainty by providing certainty of payment at a given contingency. The medical insurance principle comes to be more and more used and useful in modern times. It is one main thing that each of us should have for the well being of our lives.

Here are some reasons why each one of us needs a medical insurance:

1. Economies of Scale Benefits:

Through medical Insurance, one finds that they are actually paying less money than what they would be paying if they were to pay their medical bills at the counter. The monthly savings from the various people in the scheme are pooled together and this helps the insurance provider to give you the best service at a minimal cost. Through these savings, one can be able to go for major operations, like Kidney transplant, brain surgery and cardiac transplant. Such operations may not be possible for someone who is not rich or on medical insurance.

2. Security and Safety:

Medical Insurance provides safety and security against the loss of an Individual's life. In case of a medical insurance, payment is made when death occurs or the term of insurance is expired. The loss to the family at a premature death and payment in old age are adequately provided by insurance. In other words, security against premature death and old age sufferings are provided by life insurance. Similarly, the life of insurance is secured against any health short comings under medical insurance. In other insurance, too this security is provided against the loss at a given contingency. The insurance provides safety and security against the un expected health upcoming that may occur anytime including accidents, family member-that is if one has insured the whole family, illnesses and many other health related problems.

3. Peace of Mind:

When you are insured, you are well assured of a stress free life. The security wish is the prime motivating factor. This is the wish which tends to stimulate you to do more work and if this wish is unsatisfied, it will create a tension which manifests itself to the individual in the form of an unpleasant reaction causing reduction in work. The security banishes fear and uncertainty death which are almost beyond the control of human agency. Any occurrence of any of these events may frustrate or weaken the human mind.
However, much of the uncertainty that centers about the wish for security and its attainment may be eliminated- Dependency Elimination. " A beneficiary, who looses her spouse, might find that the destruction of the family doesn't need any elaboration. Things tend to be a bit tough, when the insurance people come to save the family, however, their life, will come back to normal, after that. Similarly, at destruction of life, the family would suffer a lot. It brings reduced standards of living and the suffering may go on to an extent of begging from relatives, neighbors, or friends. The economic independence of the family is reduced or sometimes, lost totally. The insurance is there to assist the depend ants by providing adequate amount of money at the time of suffering. The elements of protection and investment are present only in case of medical insurance. In most of the medical policies, elements of saving predominates.
These policies combine the program mes of insurance and savings.

4. Wealth of the society can be protected:

The loss of a particular wealth can be protected with the insurance. Medical insurance provides loss of human wealth. The human material, if strong, educated and care- free, it will generate more income. Similarly, the loss of damage of property at fire and accident can be well indemnified by the property insurance. With the advancement of society, its wealth or the property attracts more hazardous and so new types of insurance are also invented to protect them against the possible losses. Each and every member will have financial security against old age, death, damage, destruction and disappearance of his wealth including the life wealth.
Through prevention of economic losses, insurance protects the society against degradation. Walter, a government worker and a registered member with insurance testifies, " I was diagnosed with a heart failure and with the help of insurance, i saved a lot including money. I could not believe this was the best thing a medical insurance could do"....

Through stabilization and expansion of business and industry, the economic security is maximized.


Plot 1300-1301, Lubowa Estate


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What causes pain during erection and yellow-like discharge from the pen*s?
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